Ackerman LL, Follett KA, Rosenquist RW. Long-term outcomes during treatment of chronic pain with intrathecal clonidine or clonidine/opioid combinations. J Pain Symptom Manag 2003;26:668-77.
Ahn SH, Park HW, Lee BS, Moon HW, Jang SH, Sakong J, et al. Gabapentin effect on neuropathic pain compared among patients with spinal cord injury and different durations of symptoms. Spine 2003;28:341-6.
Arienti C, Daccò S, Piccolo I, Redaelli T. Osteopathic manipulative treatment is effective on pain control associated to spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2011;49:515-9.
Arnold JMO, Teasell RW, MacLeod AP, Brown JE, Carruthers SG. Increased venous alpha-adrenoceptor responsiveness in patients with reflex sympathetic dystrophy. Ann Int Med 1993;118:619-21.
Arnold JMO, Feng QP, Delaney GA, Teasell RW. Autonomic dysreflexia in tetraplegic patients: evidence for alpha-adrenoceptor hyper-responsiveness. Clin Auton Res 1995;5:267-70.
Attal N, Gaude V, Brasseur L, Dupuy M, Guirimand F, Parker F et al. Intravenous lidocaine in central pain: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, psychophysical study. Neurol 2000;54:564-74.
Attal N, Guirimand F, Brasseur L, Gaude V, Chauvin M, Bouhassira D. Effects of IV morphine in central pain: a randomized placebo-controlled study. Neurol 2002;58:554-63.
Baker D, Pryce G, Croxford JD, Brown P, Pertwee RG, Huffman JW, et al. Canninoids control spasticity and tremor in multiple sclerosis model. Nature 2000;404:84-7.
Banerjee T. Transcutaneous nerve stimulation for pain after spinal cord injury. New Eng J Med 1974;10:796.
Barrera-Chacón JM, Méndez-Suárez JL, Jáuregui-Abrisqueta ML, Palazón R, Bárbara-Bataller E, García-Obrero I. Oxycodone improves pain control and quality of life in anticonvulsant-pretreated spinal cord-injured patients with neuropathic pain. Spinal Cord 2010;49:36-42.
Bennett MI, Attal N, Backonja MM, Baron R, Bouhassira D, Freynhagen R, et al. Using screening tools to identify neuropathic pain. Pain 2007;127:199-203.
Beric A. Post-spinal cord injury pain states. Pain 1997;72:295-8.
Berrazueta JR, Losada A, Poveda J, Ochoteco A, Riestra A, Salas E, Amado JA. Successful treatment of shoulder pain syndrome due to supraspinatus tendinitis with transdermal nitroglycerin. A double blind study. Pain 1996;66(1):63-7.
Bonica JJ. Introduction: Semantic, epidemiologic and educational issues. In: Casey KL, editor. Pain and central nervous system disease: The central pain syndromes (pp. 13-29). New York: Raven Press. 1991.
Botterell EH, Callaghan JC, Jousee AT. Pain in paraplegia: clinical management and surgical treatment. Proc Roy Soc Med 1953;47:281-99.
Boviatsis EJ, Kouyialis AT, Korfias S, Sakas DE. Functional outcome of intrathecal baclofen administration for severe spasticity. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2005;107:289-95.
Bowsher D. Central pain: Clinical and physiological characteristics. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychi 1996;61:62-9.
Britell CW, Mariano AJ. Chronic pain in spinal cord injury. Phys Med Rehab: State of the Art Reviews 1991;5:71-82.
Britell CW, Umlauf R, Loehr J, DeLisa JA. Problem survey in an SCI outpatient clinic population: a case of multifaceted, ongoing care. Arch Phys Med Rehab 1986;67:654.
Burchiel KJ, Hsu FP. Pain and spasticity after spinal cord injury: Mechanisms and treatment. Spine 2001;26:S146-S160.
Burke DC, Woodward JM. Pain and phantom sensations in spinal paralysis. In Vinken PJ, Bruyn GW (Eds). Handbook of Clinical Neurology (pp. 489-499). Amsterdam, North Holland Publishing Co. 1976.
Burke DC. Pain in paraplegia. Paraplegia 1973;10:297-313.
Burnham RS, May L, Nelson E, Steadward R, Reid DC. Shoulder pain in wheelchair athletes: the role of muscle imbalance. Am J Sports Med 1993;21:238-42.
Burns AS, Delparte JJ, Ballantyne EC, Boschen KA: Evaluation of an interdisciplinary program for chronic pain after spinal cord injury. Physical Medicine and Rehab 2013;5:832-8.
Bryce TN, Biering-Sorensen F, Finnerup NB, Cardenas DD, Defrin R, Lundeberg T, Norrbrink C, Richards JS, Siddall P, Stripling T, Treede RD, Waxman SG, Widerstrom-Noga E, Yezierski RP, Dijkers M: International spinal cord injury pain classification: Part I. Background and description. Spinal Cord 2012;50:413-7.
Cairns DM, Adkins DH, Scott MD. Pain and depression in acute traumatic spinal cord injury: origins of chronic problematic pain. Arch Phys Med Rehab 1996;77:329-35.
Capel ID, Dorrell HM, Spencer EP, Davis MW. The amelioration of the suffering associated with spinal cord injury with subperception transcranial electrical stimulation. Spinal Cord 2003;41:109-17.
Cardenas DD, Nieshoff EC, Suda K, Goto S, Sanin L, Kaneko T, Spom J, Parsons B, Soulsby M, Yang R, Whalen E, Scavone J, Suzuki M, Knapp L. A randomized trial of pregabalin in patients with neuropathic pain due to spinal cord injury. Neurology 2013;80:533-39.
Cardenas DD, Warms CA, Turner JA, Marshall H, Brooke MM, Loeser JD. Efficacy of amitriptyline for relief of pain in spinal cord injury: results of a randomized controlled trial. Pain 2002;96:365-73.
Chase T, Jha A, Brooks CA, Allshouse A: A pilot feasibility study of massage to reduce pain in people with spinal cord injury during acute rehabilitation. Spinal Cord 2013;51:847-51.
Cheing GL, Hui-Chan CW. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation: Nonparallel antinociceptive effects on chronic clinical pain and acute experimental pain. Arch Phys Med Rehab 1999;80:305-12.
Chiou-Tan FY, Tuel SM, Johnson trJC, Priebe MM, Hirsh DD, Strayer JR. Effect of mexiletine on spinal cord injury dysesthetic pain. Am J Phys Med Rehab 1996;75:84-7.
Chun HJ, Kim YS, Yi HJ. A modified microsurgical DREZotomy procedure for refractory neuropathic pain. World Neurosurgery 2011;75:551-7.
Cioni B, Meglio M, Pentimalli L, Visocchi M. Spinal cord stimulation in the treatment of paraplegic pain. J Neurosurg 1995;82:35-9.
Coffey JR, Cahill D, Steers W, Park TS, Ordia J, Meythaler J, et al. Intrathecal baclofen for intractable spasticity of spinal origin: Results of a long-term multicenter study. J Neurosurg 1993;78:226-32.
Cohen MJ, McArthur DL, Vulpe M, Schandler SI, Gerber KE. Comparing chronic pain from spinal cord injury to chronic pain of other origins. Pain 1988;35:57-63.
Consroe P, Musty R, Rein J, Tillery W, Pertwee R. The perceived effects of smoked cannabis on patients with multiple sclerosis. European Neurology 1997;38:44-8.
Curtis KA, Tyner TM, Zachary L, Lentell G, Brink D, Didyk T et al. Effect of a standard exercise protocol on shoulder pain in long-term wheelchair users. Spinal Cord1999;37:421-9.
Cyriax J. Textbook of Orthopedic Medicine (Ed. 5). Balliere, Tindall and Casell 1969.
Dalyan M, Cardenas DD, Gerard B. Upper extremity pain after spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 1999;37:191-5.
Davidoff G, Roth E, Guarracini M, Sliwa J, Yarkony G. Functional-limiting dysesthetic pain syndrome among traumatic spinal cord injury patients: A cross-sectional study. Pain 1987a;29:39-48.
Davidoff G, Guarrancini M, Roth E, Sliewa J, Yarkony G. Trazodone hydrochloride in the treatment of dysesthetic pain in traumatic myelopathy: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Pain 1987b;29:151-61.
Davis L, Martin J. Studies upon spinal cord injuries: the nature and treatment of pain. J Neurosurg 1947;4:483-91.
Davis R. Pain and suffering following spinal cord injury. Clin Orthop 1975;112:76-80.
Davis R, Lentini R. Transcutaneous nerve stimulation for treatment of pain in patients with spinal cord injury. Surg Neurol 1975;4:100-1.
Davis SE, Mulcahey MJ, Smith BT, Betz RR. Self-reported use of an implanted FES hand system by adolescents with tetraplegia. J Spinal Cord Med 1998;21:220-6.
Defrin R, Grunhaus L, Zamir D, Zeilig G. The effect of a series of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulations of the motor cortex on central pain after spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehab 2007;88:1574-80.
Degenhardt BF, Darmani NA, Johnson JC, Towns LC, Rhodes DC, Trinh C, et al. role of osteopathic manipulative treatment in altering pain biomarkers: A pilot study. J Am Osteopath Assoc 2007;107:387-400.
Ditor DS, Latimer AE, Ginis KA, Arbour KP, McCartney N, Hicks AL. Maintenance of exercise participation in individuals with spinal cord injury: effects on quality of life, stress and pain. Spinal Cord 2003;41:446-50.
Donovan WH, Dimitrijevic MR, Dahm L, Dimitrijevic M. Neurophysiological approaches to chronic pain following spinal cord injury. Paraplegia 1982;20:135-46.
Drewes AM, Andreasen A, Poulsen LH. Valproate for treatment of chronic central pain after spinal cord injury. A double-blind crossover study. Paraplegia 1994;32:565-9.
Dunn M, Davis R. The perceived effects of marijuana on spinal cord injured males. Paraplegia 1974;12:175.
Dyson-Hudson TA, Kadar P, LaFountaine M, Emmons R, Kirshblum SC, Tulsky D et al. Acupuncture for chronic shoulder pain in persons with spinal cord injury: a small-scale clinical trial. Arch Phys Med Rehab 2007;88:1276-83.
Dyson-Hudson TA, Shiflett SC, Kirshblum SC, Bowen JE, Druin EL. Acupuncture and trager psychophysical integration in the treatment of wheelchair user’s shoulder pain in individuals with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehab 2001;82:1038-46.
Eide PK, Stubhaug A, Stenehjem AE. Central dysethesia pain after traumatic spinal cord injury dependent on N-Methyl-Diaspartate receptor activation. Neurosurgery 1995;37:1080-7.
Eide PK. Pathophysiological mechanism of central neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 1998;36:601-12.
Falci S, Best L, Bayles R, Lammertse D, Starnes C. Dorsal root entry zone microcoagulation for spinal cord injury-related central pain: operative intramedullary electrophysiological guidance and clinical outcome. J Neurosurg Spine 2002;97:193-200.
Farkash AE, Portenoy RK. The pharmacological management of chronic pain in the paraplegic patient. J Am Para Soc 1986;9:41-50.
Fenollosa P, Pallares J, Cervera J, Pelegrin F, Inigo V, Giner M, et al. Chronic pain in the spinal cord injured: statistical approach and pharmacological treatment. Paraplegia 1993;31:722-9.
Finley MA, Rodgers MM. Effect of 2-speed geared manual wheelchair propulsion on shoulder pain and function. Arch Phys Med Rehab 2007;88:1622-7.
Finnerup NB, Biering-Sorensen F, Johannesen IL, Terkelsen AJ, Juhl GI, Kristensen AD, et al. Intravenous lidocaine relieves spinal cord injury pain: a randomized controlled trial. Anesthesiology 2005;102:1023-30.
Finnerup NB, Grydehoj J, Bing J, Johannesen IL, Biering-Sorensen F, Sindrup SH, et al. Levetiracetam in spinal cord injury pain: A randomized controlled trial. Spinal Cord 2009;47:861-7.
Finnerup NB, Sindrup SH, Bach FW, Johannesen IL, Jensen TS. Lamotrigine in spinal cord injury pain: A randomized controlled trial. Pain 2002;96:375-83.
Floor E, Hsu CC, Davis KM, Jin H, Foos T, Floor E et al. Association of L-glutamic acid decarboxylase to the 70-kDa heat shock protein as a potential anchoring mechanism to synaptic vesicles. J Biol Chem 2000;275:208:22-8.
Fregni F, Gimenes R, Valle AC, Ferreira MJ, Rocha RR, Natalle L et al. A randomized, sham-controlled, proof of principle study of transcranial direct current stimulation for the treatment of pain in fibromyalgia. Arthritis Rheum 2006;54:3988-98.
Friedman AH, Nashold BS. DREZ lesions for relief of pain related to spinal cord injury. J Neurosurgery 1986;65:465-9.
Friedman WH, Rosenblum BN. Paranasal sinus etiology of headaches and facial pain. Otolaryngologic Clin N Am 1989;22:1217-28.
Furlan AD, Sandoval JA, Mailis-Gagnon A, Tunks E. Opioids for chronic noncancer pain: A meta-analysis of effectiveness and side effects. CMAJ 2006;174:1589-94.
Gajraj NM. Pregablin: Its pharmacology and use in pain management. Anesth Analg 2007;105:1085-115.
Gibson JC, White LE. Denervation hyperpathia: A convulsive syndrome of the spinal cord responsive to carbamazepine therapy. J Neurosurg 1971;35:287-90.
Giardino ND, Jensen MP, Turner JA, Ehde DM, Cardenas DD. Social environment moderates the association between catastrophizing and pain among persons with a spinal cord injury. Pain 2003;106:19-25.
Giner-Pascual M, Alcanyis-Alberola M, Querol F, Salinas-Huertas S, García-Massó X, Gonzalez LM. Transdermal nitroglycerine treatment of shoulder tendinopathies in patients with spinal cord injuries. Send to Spinal Cord 2011;49(9):1014-9.
Ginis KAM, Latimer AE, McKechnie K, Ditor DS, Hicks AL, Bugaresti J. Using exercise to enhance subjective well-being among people with spinal cord injury: The mediating influences of stress and pain. Rehab Psychol 2003;48:157-64.
Gustin SM, Wrigley PF, Gandevia SC, Middleton JW, Henderson LA, Siddall PJ. Movement imagery increases pain in people with neuropathic pain following complete thoracic spinal cord injury. Pain 2008;137:237-44.
Guttmann L. Spinal cord injuries, comprehensive management and research (pp. 256-262). Blackwell: Oxford. 1973.
Hagenbach U, Luz S, Ghafoor N, Berger JM, Grotenhermen F, Brenneisen R et al. The treatment of spasticity with delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol in persons with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2007;45:551-62.
Han ZA, Song DH, Oh HM, Chung ME. Botulinum toxin type A for neuropathic pain in patients with spinal cord injury. Ann Neurol 2016;79(4):569-78.
Harris AJ. Cortical origin of pathological pain. Lancet 1999;354:1464-6.
Hassenbusch SJ, Garber J, Buchser E, DuPen S. Alternative intrathecal agents for the treatment of pain. Neuromodulation 1999;2:85-91.
Hazouri LA, Mueller AD. Pain threshold studies on paraplegic patients. AMA Arch Neurol Psychiatry 1950;64:607-13.
Heaton LD, Coates JB. Neurosurgery of tauma (pp. 301-305). Department of Army: Washington DC. 1965.
Heliporn A. Two therapeutic experiments on stubborn pain in spinal cord lesions: Coupling melitracen-flupenthixol and the transcutaneous electrical stimulation. Paraplegia 1977-1978;15:353-67.
Henry JL. Pharmacologic studies on the prolonged depressant effects of baclofen on lumbar dorsal horn units in the cat. Neuropharmacology 1982;21:1085-93.
Herman RM, D’Luzansky SC. Pharmacological management of spinal spasticity. J Neurol Rehab 1991;5:515-20.
Herman RM, D’Luzansky SC, Ippolito R. Intrathecal baclofen suppresses central pain in patients with spinal lesions: A pilot study. Clin J Pain 1992;8:338-45.
Heutink M, Post MWM, Bongers-Janssen HMH, Dijkstra CA, Snoek GJ, Spijkerman DCM, Lindeman E: The CONECSI trial: Results of a randomized controlled trial of a multidisciplinary cognitive behavioral program for coping with chronic neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury. Pain 2012;153:120-8.
Hocking G, Cousins MJ. Ketamine in chronic pain management: An evidence-based review. Anesth Analg 2003;97:1730-9.
Jensen MP, Barber J, Romano JM, Hanley MA, Raichle KA, Molton IR, et al. Effects of self-hypnosis training and EMG biofeedback relaxation training on chronic pain in persons with spinal-cord injury. Int J Clin Exp Hypn 2009;57,239-68.
Jensen MP, Barber J, Williams-Avery RM, Flores L, Brown MZ. The effect of hypnotic suggestion on spinal cord injury pain. J Back Musculoskeletal Rehab 2000;14:3-10.
Jensen MP, Gertz KJ, Kupper AE, Braden AL, Howe JD, Hakimian S, Sherlin LH: Steps toward developing an EEG biofeedback treatment for chronic pain. App Psychophysiol Biofeedback 2013;38:101-8.
Jette F, Cote I, Meziane HB, Mercier C: Effect of single-session repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation applied over the hand versus leg motor area on pain after spinal cord injury. Neurorehabi Neural Repair 2013;27:636-643.
Johnson M, Martinson M. Efficacy of electrical nerve stimulation for chronic musculoskeletal pain: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Pain 2007;130:157-65.
Jordan M, Richardson EJ. Effects of virtual walking treatment on spinal cord injury-related neuropathic pain: pilot results and trends related to location of pain and at-level neuronal hypersensitivity. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2016;95(5):390-6.
Kang BS, Shin HI, Bang MS. Effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the hand motor cortical area on central pain after spinal cord injury.Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2009;90(10):1766-71.
Kaplan LI, Grynbaum BB, Lloyd KE, Rusk HA. Pain and spasticity in patients with spinal cord dysfunction: Results of a follow-up study. JAMA 1962;182:918-25.
Kaydok E, Levendoglu F, Ozerbil MO, Karahan AY. Comparison of the efficacy of gabapentin and pregabalin for neuropathic pain in patients with spinal cord injury: A crossover study. Acta Medica Mediterranea 2014;30(6):1343-8.
Kazdin AE. Behavior modification in applied settings (6th ed). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Thomson Learning. 2001.
Korn ER. Visualization techniques and altered states of consciousness. In: Sheikh AA, ed. Handbook of Therapeutic Imagery Techniques (pp. 41-49). Amityville, NY: Baywood Publishing Company Inc. 2002.
Kennedy RH. The new viewpoint toward spinal cord injuries. Ann Surg 1946;12:1057-65.
Kumru H, Soler D, Vidal J, Tormos JM, Pascual-Leone A, Valls-Sole J. Evoked potentials and quantitative thermal testing in spinal cord injury patients with chronic neuropathic pain. Clinical Neurophysiology 2012;123:55-66.
Kvarnstrom A, Karlsten R, Quiding H, Gordh T. The analgesic effect of intravenous ketamine and lidocaine on pain after spinal cord injury. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2004;48:498-506.
Kwekkeboom KL. Outcome expectancy and success with cognitive-behavioural interventions: The case of guided imagery. Oncol Nurs Forum 2001;28:1125-32.
Levitt M. The bilaterally symmetrical deafferentation syndrome in macaques after bilateral spinal lesions: Evidence for dysesthesias resulting from brain foci and considerations of spinal pain pathways. Pain 1983;16:167-84.
Levendoglu F, Ogun CO, Ozerbil O, Ogun TC, Ugurlu H. Gabapentin is a first line drug for the treatment of neuropathic pain in spinal cord injury. Spine 2004;29:743-51.
Livshits A, Rappaport ZH, Livshits V, Gepstein R. Surgical treatment of painful spasticity after spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2002;40:161-6.
Loubser PG, Akman NM. Effects of intrathecal baclofen on chronic spinal cord injury pain. J Pain Symptom Manage1996;12:241-7.
Loubser PG, Donovan WH. Diagnostic spinal anaesthesia in chronic spinal cord injury pain. Paraplegia 1991;29:36.
Maihofner C, Handwerker HO, Neundorfer B, Birklein F. Cortical reorganization during recovery from complex regional pain syndrome. Neurology 2004;63:693-701.
Marciniak C, Rader L, Gagnon C. The use of botulinum toxin for spasticity after spinal cord injury. Am J Phys Med Rehab 2008;87:312-7.
Mariano AJ. Chronic pain and spinal cord injury: Review and comment. Clin J Pain 1992;8:119-22.
Martyn CN, Illis LS, Thom J. Nabilone in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Lancet 1995;345:579.
Matthew GJ, Osterholm JL. Painful traumatic neuromas. Surg Clin North Am 1972;51:1313-24.
Maury M. About pain and its treatment in paraplegics. Paraplegia 1977-1978;15:349-52.
Max MB, Culhane M, Shafer SC, Gracely RH, Walther DJ, Smoller B, et al. Amitriptyline relieves diabetic neuropathy pain in patients with normal or depressed mood. Neurology 1987;37:589-96.
McCasland LD, Budiman-Mak E, Weaver FM, Adams E, Miskevics S. Shoulder pain in the traumatically injured spinal cord patient: Evaluation of risk factors and function. J Clin Rheumatol 2006;12:179-86.
Meinck HM, Schonle PW, Conrad B. Effect of cannabinoids on spasticity and ataxia in multiple sclerosis. J. Neurol 1989;236:120-2.
Melzack R, Loeser JD. Phantom body pain in paraplegics: Evidence for a central “pattern generating mechanism” for pain. Pain 1978;4:195-210.
Meythaler JM, Steers WD, Tuel SM, Cross LL, Haworth CS. Continuous intrathecal baclofen in spinal cord spasticity. A prospective study. Am J Phys Med Rehab 1992;71:321-7.
Michaelis LS. The problem of pain in paraplegia and tetraplegia. Bull NY Acad Med 1970;461:88-96.
Migita K, Uozumi T, Arita K, Monden S. Transcranial magnetic coil stimulation of motor cortex in patients with central pain. Neurosurgery 1995;36:1037-40.
Millikan T, Morse M, Hedrick B. Prevention of shoulder injuries. Sports and Spokes 1991;17:35-8.
Modirian E, Pirouzi P, Soroush M, Karbalaei-Esmaeili S, Shojaei H, Zamani H. Chronic pain after spinal cord injury: results of a long-term study. Pain Med 2010;11(7):1037-1043.
Moseley GL. Using visual illusion to reduce at-level neuropathic pain in paraplegia. Pain 2007;130:294-8.
Moulin DE, Clark AJ, Gilron I, Ware MA, Watson CPN, Sessle BJ, et al. Pharmacological management of chronic neuropathic pain. Consensus statement and guidelines from the Canadian pain society. Pain Res Manag 2007;12:13-21.
Munro D. The care of patients paralyzed as the result of injury to the spinal cord and cauda equina. Med Clin North Am 1948;32:91.
Munro D. Two-year end-results in the total rehabilitation of veterans with spinal cord and cauda equina injuries. New Engl J Med 1950;242:1-10.
Murrell GA. Using nitric oxide to treat tendinopathy. Br J Sports Med 2007;41(4):227-31
Nash MS, van dV I, van EN, Johnson BM. Effects of circuit resistance training on fitness attributes and upper-extremity pain in middle-aged men with paraplegia. Arch Phys Med Rehab 2007;88:70-5.
Nashold BS Jr, Ostdahl RH. Dorsal root entry zone lesions for pain relief. J Neurosurg 1979;51:59-69.
Nashold BS, Bullitt E. Dorsal root entry zone lesions to control central pain in paraplegics. J Neurosurg 1981;55:414-9.
Nashold BS Jr, Alexander E. Neurosurgical treatment of deafferentation pain. In: Tollison CD (Eds). Handbook of Chronic Pain Management (pp. 125-135). Williams & Wilkens: Baltimore, MD. 1989.
Nashold BS. Paraplegia and pain. In Nashold BS, Ovelmen-Levitt J (Eds). Deafferentation pain syndromes: Pathophysiology and treatment (pp. 301-319). Raven Press Ltd: New York. 1991.
Nashold BS, Jr., Vieira J, el-Naggar AO. Pain and spinal cysts in paraplegia: Treatment by drainage and DREZ operation. Br J Neurosurg 1990;4:327-35.
Nawoczenski DA, Ritter-Soronen JM, Wilson CM, Howe BA, Ludewig PM. Clinical trial of exercise for shoulder pain in chronic spinal injury. Phys Ther 2006;86:1604-18.
Nayak S, Shiflett SC, Schoenberger NE, Agostinelli S, Kirshblum S, Averill A, et al. Is acupuncture effective in treating chronic pain after spinal cord injury? Arch Phys Med Rehab 2001;82:1578-86.
Nepomunceno C, Fine PR, Richards JS, Gowens H, Stover SL, Rantanuabol U, et al. Pain in patients with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehab 1979;60:595-608.
Ngernyam N, Jensen MP, Arayawichanon P, Auvichayapat N, Tiamkao S, Janjarasjitt S, et al. The effects of transcranial direct current stimulation in patients with neuropathic pain from spinal cord injury. Clin Neurophysiol 2015;126(2):382-90.
Nichols PJ, Norman PA, Ennis JR. Wheelchair user`s shoulder: Shoulder pain in patients with spinal cord lesions. Scand J Rehab Med 1979;11:29-32.
NIH consensus conference. Acupunc JAMA 1998;280:1518-24.
Norrbrink C, Lundeberg T. Acupuncture and massage therapy for neuropathic pain following spinal cord injury: An exploratory study. Acupunc Med 2011;29:108-15.
Norrbrink C. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for treatment of spinal cord injury neuropathic pain. J Rehab Res Dev 2009;46:85-93.
Norrbrink C, Lundeberg T. Tramadol in neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clin J Pain 2009;25:177-84.
Norrbrink Budh C, Kowalski J, Lundeberg T. A comprehensive pain management programme comprising educational, cognitive and behavioural interventions for neuropathic pain following spinal cord injury. J Rehab Med 2006;38:172-80.
Norrbrink Budh C, Lundeberg T. Non-pharmacological pain-relieving therapies in individuals with spinal cord injury: A patient perspective. Complement Ther Med. 2004;12:189-97.
Osenbach RK, Harvey S. Neuraxial infusion in patients with chronic intractable cancer and noncancer pain. Curr Pain Headache Rep 2001;5:241-9.
Özkul Ç, Kılınç M, Yıldırım SA, Topçuoğlu EY, Akyüz M. Effects of visual illusion and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on neuropathic pain in patients with spinal cord injury: A randomised controlled cross-over trial. J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil 2015;28(4):709-19.
Panagos A, Jensen M, Cardenas DD. Treatment of myofascial shoulder pain in the spinal cord injured population using static magnetic fields: A case series. J Spinal Cord Med 2004;27:138-42.
Penn RD, Kroin JS. Long term intrathecal baclofen infusion for treatment of spasticity. J Neurosurg 1987;66:181-5.
Pentland WE & Twomey LT. The weight-bearing upper extremity in women with long term paraplegia. Paraplegia 1991;29:521-30.
Pentland WE & Twomey LT. Upper limb function in persons with long-term paraplegia and implications for independence: Part I and II. Paraplegia 1994;34:211-24.
Perry KN, Nicholas MK, Middleton JW. Comparison of a pain management program with usual care in a pain management center for people with spinal cord injury-related chronic pain. Clin J Pain 2010;26:206-16.
Petro DJ, Ellenberger C. Treatment of human spasticity with delta-9-THC. J Clin Pharmacol 1981;21:4135-65.
Plassat R, Perrouin Verbe B, Menei P, Menegalli D, Mathé JF, Richard I. Treatment of spasticity with intrathecal baclofen administration: Long-term follow-up, review of 40 patients. Spinal Cord 2004;42:686-93.
Pleger B, Tegenthoff M, Ragert P, Forster AF, Dinse HR, Schwenkreis P, et al. Sensorimotor retuning in complex regional pain syndrome parallels pain reduction. Ann Neurol 2005;57:425-9.
Plummer JL, Cmielewski PL, Gourlay GK, Owen H, Cousins MJ. Antinociceptive and motor effects on intrathecal morphine combined with intrathecal clonidine, noradrenaline, carbachol or midazolam in rats. Pain 1992;49:145-52.
Pollock LJ, Brown M, Boshes B, Finkelman I, Chor H, Arief AH, et al. Pain below the level of injury of the spinal cord. AMA Arch Neurol Psychiatry 1951;65:319-22.
Pomeran ZB. Scientific basis of acupuncture. In: Stux G, Pomeran (Eds.). Basis of acupuncture (pp. 6-72). 4 Rev Ed. Springh-Verlag. 1998.
Powers CM, Newsam SG, Gronley JK, Fontaine CA, Perry J. Isometric shoulder torque in subjects with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehab 1994;75:761-3.
Putzke JD, Richards JS, Kezar L, Hicken BL, Ness TJ. Long-term use of gabapentin for treatment of pain after traumatic spinal cord injury. Clin J Pain 2002;18:116-21.
Ragnarsson KT. Management of pain in persons with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord Med 1997;20:186-99.
Rainov NG, Heidecke V, Burkert W. Long-term intrathecal infusion of drug combinations for chronic back and leg pain. J Pain Symptom Manage 2001;22:862-71.
Rapson LM, Wells N, Pepper J, Majid N, Boon H. Acupuncture as a promising treatment for below-level central neuropathic pain: A retrospective study. J Spinal Cord Med 2003;26:21-6.
Rath SA, Seitz K, Soliman N, Kahamba JF, Antoniadis G, Richter HP. DREZ coagulations for deafferentation pain related to spinal and peripheral nerve lesions: Indication and results of 79 consecutive procedures. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 1997;68:161-7.
Richards JS, Meredith RL, Neopmuceno C, Fine PR, Bennett G. Psychosocial aspects of chronic pain in spinal cord injury. Pain 1980;8:355-66.
Rintala DH, Fiess RN, Tan G, Holmes SA, and Bruel BM. Effect of dronabinol on central neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury: A pilot study. Am J Phys Med Rehab 2010;89:840-8.
Rintala DH, Holmes SA, Courtade D, Fiess RN, Tastard LV, Loubser PG. Comparison of the effectiveness of amitriptyline and gabapentin on chronic neuropathic pain in persons with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehab 2007;88:1547-60.
Rintala DH, Loubser PG, Castro J, Hart KA, Fuhrer MJ. Chronic pain in a community-based sample of men with spinal cord injury: Prevalence, severity and relationship with impairment, disability, handicap and subjective well-being. Arch Phys Med Rehab 1998;79:604-14.
Rose M, Robinson JE, Ells P, Cole JD. Letter to the editor. Pain following spinal cord injury: Results from a postal survey. Pain 1988;34:101-2.
Sampson JH, Cashman RE, Nashold BS, Jr., Friedman AH. Dorsal root entry zone lesions for intractable pain after trauma to the conus medullaris and cauda equina. J Neursurg 1995;82:28-34.
Sandford PR, Benes PS. Use of capsaicin in the treatment of radicular pain in spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med 2000;23:238-43.
Sandford PR, Lindblom LB, Haddox JD. Amitriptyline and carbamazepine in the treatment of dysesthetic pain in spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehab 1992;73:300-1.
Sawynok J. GABAergic mechanisms of analgesia: An update. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1987;26:463-74.
Serra-Ano P, Pellicer-Chenoll M, Garcia-Masso X, Morales J, Giner-Pascual M, Gonzalez LM: Effects of resistance training on strength, pain and shoulder functionality in paraplegics. Spinal Cord 2012;50:827-831.
Siddall PJ, Cousins MJ, Otte A, Griesing T, Chambers R, Murphy TK. Pregabalin in central neuropathic pain associated with spinal cord injury: A placebo-controlled trial. Neurol 2006;67:1792-800.
Siddall PJ, Molloy AR, Walker S, Mather LE, Rutkowski SB, Cousins MJ. The efficacy of intrathecal morphine and clonidine in the treatment of pain after spinal cord injury. Anesth Analg 2000;91:1493-8.
Siddall PA, Taylor DA, Cousins MJ. Classification of pain following spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 1997;35:69-75.
Siddall PJ, Taylor DA, McClelland JM, Rutkowski SB, Cousins MJ. Pain report and the relationship of pain to physical factors in the first 6 months following spinal cord injury. Pain 1999;81:187-97.
Sie IH, Waters RL, Adkins RH, Gellman H. Upper extremity pain in the postrehabilitation spinal cord injured patient. Arch Phys Med Rehab 1992;73:44-8.
Silverskiold J, Waters RL. Shoulder pain and functional disability in spinal cord injury patients. Clin Orthopaed Relat Res 1991;272:141-5.
Sindou M, Mertens P, Wael M. Microsurgical DREZotomy for pain due to spinal cord and/or cauda equina injuries: long-term results in a series of 44 patients. Pain 2001;92:159-71.
Sjolund BH. Pain and rehabilitation after spinal cord injury: The case of sensory spasticity? Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2002;40:250-6.
Soler MD, Kumru H, Pelayo R, Vidal J, Tormos JM, Fregni F, et al. Effectiveness of transcranial direct current stimulation and visual illusion on neuropathic pain in spinal cord injury. Brain 2010;133:2565-77.
Spaic M, Petkovic S, Tadic R, Minic L. DREZ surgery on conus medullaris (after failed implantation of vascular omental graft) for treating chronic pain due to spine (gunshot) injuries. Acta Neurochirurgica 1999;141:1309-12.
Spaic M, Markovic N, Tadic R. Microsurgical DREZotomy for pain of spinal cord and cauda equina injury origin: Clinical characteristics of pain and implications for surgery in a series of 26 patients. Acta Neurochirurgica 2002;144:453-62.
Stormer S, Gerner HJ, Gruninger W, Metzmacher K, Follinger S, Wienke C, et al. Chronic pain/dysaesthesia in spinal cord injury patients: Results of a multicentre study. Spinal Cord 1997;35:446-55.
Subbarao JV, Klopfstein J, Turpin R. Prevalence and impact of wrist and shoulder pain in patients with spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med 1995;18:9-13.
Summers JD, Rapoff MA, Varghese G, Porter K, Palmer RE. Psychosocial factors in chronic spinal cord injury pain. Pain 1991;47:183-9.
Swerdlow M. Anticonvulsant drugs and chronic pain. Clin Neuropharmacol 1984;7:51-82.
Tai Q, Kirshblum S, Chen B, Millis S, Johnston M, DeLisa JA. Gabapentin in the treatment of neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, crossover trial. J Spinal Cord Med 2002;25:100-5.
Tallarida RJ, Stone DJ Jr, McCary JD, Raffa RB. Response surface analysis of synergism between morphine and clonidine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1999:289:8-13.
Tan G, Rintala DH, Thornby JI, Yang J, Wade W, Vasilev C. Using cranial electrotherapy stimulation to treat pain associated with spinal cord injury. J Rehab Res Dev 2006;43:461-74.
Tawashy AE, Eng JJ, Lin KH, Tang PF, Hung C. Physical activity is related to lower levels of pain, fatigue and depression in individuals with spinal-cord injury: a correlational study. Spinal Cord 2009; 47(4):301-6.
Teasell RW, Arnold JMO. Apha-1 adrenoceptor hyperresponsiveness in 3 neuropathic pain states: Complex regional pain syndrome 1, diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain and central pain states following spinal cord injury. Pain Res Manag 2004;9:89-97.
To TP, Lim TC, Hill ST, Frauman AG, Cooper N, Kirsa SW, et al. Gabapentin for neuropathic pain following spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2002;40:282-5.
Turner JA, Cardenas DD. Chronic pain problems in individuals with spinal cord injuries. Sem Clin Neuropsychiatry 1999;4:186-94.
Turner JA, Cardenas DD, Warms CA, McClellan CB. Chronic pain associated with spinal cord injuries: A community survey. Arch Phys Med Rehab 2001;82:501-9.
Tunks E. Pain in spinal cord injured patients. In Bloch RF, Besbaum M (eds). Management of spinal cord injuries (p. 180-211). Williams and Wilkins: Baltimore, MD. 1986.
Uchikawa K, Toikawa H, Liu M. Subscapularis motor point block for spastic shoulders in patients with cervical cord injury. Spinal Cord 2009;47:249-51.
Uhle EI, Becker R, Gatscher S, Bertalanffy H. Continuous intrathecal clonidine administration for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 2000;75:167-75.
Ungerleider T, Andyriak T, Fairbanks L, Ellison GW, Myels LW. Delta-9-THC in the treatment of spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis. Adv Alcohol Substance Abuse 1987;7:39-50.
Villiger M, Bohli D, Kiper D, Pyk P, Spillmann J, Meilick B, et al. Virtual reality-augmented neurorehabilitation improves motor function and reduces neuropathic pain in patients with incomplete spinal cord injury. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2013;27(8):675-83.
Vranken JH, Hollmann MW, Van der Vegt MH, Kruis MR, Heesen M, Vos K, et al. Duloxetine in patients with central neuropathic pain caused by spinal cord injury or stroke: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Pain 2011;152:267-73.
Vranken JH, Dijkgraaf MG, Kruis MR, Van der Vegt MH, Hollmann MW, Heesen M. Pregabalin in patients with central neuropathic pain: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a flexible-dose regimen. Pain 2008;136:150-7.
Wade DT, Robson R, House H, Makel P, Aram J. A preliminary controlled study to determine whether whole-plant cannabis extracts can improve intractable neurogenic symptoms. Clin Rehab 2003;17:21-9.
White JC, Sweet WH. Pain and the Neurosurgeon. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas. 1969.
Widerström-Noga EG, Felipe-Cuervo E, Yezierski RP. Relationships among clinical characteristics of chronic pain after spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehab 2001;82:1191-7.
Widerström-Noga EG, Turk DC. Types and effectiveness of treatments used by people with chronic pain associated with spinal cord injuries: Influence of pain and psychosocial characteristics. Spinal Cord 2003;41:600-9.
Widerström-Noga EG, Felix ER, Cruz-Almeida Y, Turk DC. Psychosocial subgroups in persons with spinal cord injuries and chronic pain. Arch Phys Med Rehab 2007;88:1628-35.
Wrigley PJ, Gustin SM, McIndoe LN, Chakiath RJ, Henderson LA, Siddall PJ. Longstanding neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury is refractory to transcranial direct current stimulation: a randomized controlled trial. Pain 2013;154(10):2178-84.
Wong JY, Rapson LM. Acupuncture in the management of pain of musculoskeletal and neurologic origin. Phys Med Rehab Clin North Am 1999;10:531-45.
Woolsey RM. Chronic pain following spinal cord injury. J Amer Paraplegic Soc 1986;9:39-40.
Woolsey RM. Pain in spinal cord disorders (pp. 354-362). In: Young RR, Woolsey RM (eds). Diagnosis and management of disorders of the spinal cord. Saunders: Philadelphia, PA. 1995.
Wollaars MM, Post MW, Van Asbeck FW, Brand N. Spinal cord injury pain: The influence of psychologic factors and impact on quality of life. Clin J Pain 2007;23:383-91.
Yaksh T. Pharmacology of spinal adrenergic systems which modulate spinal cord nociceptive processing. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1985;22:323-30.
Yang ML, Li JJ, So KF, Chen JY, Cheng WS, Wu J, et al. Efficacy and safety of lithium carbonate treatment of chronic spinal cord injuries: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Spinal Cord 2012;50(2):141-6.
Yeh ML, Chung YC, Chen KM, Tsou MY, and Chen HH. Acupoint electrical stimulation reduces acute postoperative pain in surgical patients with patient-controlled analgesia: A randomized controlled study. Altern Ther Health Med 2010;16:10.
Yilmaz B, Kesikburun S, Yaşar E, Tan AK. The effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on refractory neuropathic pain in spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med 2014; 37(4):397–400.
Yoon EJ, Kim YK, Kim H-R, Kim SE, Lee Y, Shin HI: Transcranial direct current stimulation to lessen neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury: A mechanistic PET study. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2014;28:250-9.