Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation
Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been reported to improve several pain conditions, such as back pain, shoulder pain, wrist pain, knee pain.
In an RCT, Chen and colleagues (2018) found that combined NMES and carbamazepine was equally as effective at reducing pain intensity compared to carbamazepine alone.
There is level 2 evidence (Chen et al. 2018) that NMES combined with carbamazepine is no more effective than carbamazepine alone in improving pain post SCI.