Author YearCountry
PEDro Score
Research Design
Total Sample Size
Methods Outcome
Hearn et al. 2018

United Kingdom





Population: Mean age=44.4±10.4 yr; Gender: males=31, females=36; Time since injury (yr): 1-2=11, 2-4=18, 4-8=19, 8-12=6, 12-15=7, 15+=6; Level of injury: C=25, T=37, L=5; Severity of injury: AIS A=9, B=17, C=19, D=22; Type of pain=neuropathic.

Intervention: Participants were randomized to either an 8-wk online mindfulness intervention or an 8-wk internet delivered psychoeducation.

Outcome Measures: Depression symptom severity and anxiety (hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS)), quality of life (QoL)(world health organization quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF) , pain perception (numeric rating scale), pain catastrophizing scale (PCS) and mindfulness (five facet mindfulness questionnaire (FFMQ).

1.     HADS scores for depression were much higher for those that discontinued the psychoeducation intervention than those who completed it (p=0.051) with no other significant differences between those who completed the intervention and those who did not.

2.     Significant differences post-intervention between groups for mindfulness facets of acting with awareness, describing and non-reactivity to inner experience (p<0.05) as well as total FFMQ score (p<0.05).

3.     No significant differences between groups for any QoL, pain intensity and mindfulness facets of observing and non-judging post-intervention (p>0.05).

4.     Significant between group difference in severity of depression and pain catastrophizing at 3-mo follow-up (p<0.050).


In an RCT, Hearn and colleagues (2018) found that online mindfulness was effective in improving level of depression and pain catastrophizing compared to psychoeducation control group. However, no difference in average pain intensity was seen between the two groups.


There is level 1b evidence that mindfulness is no more effective than psychoeducation for improving post SCI pain.

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