Non-pharmacological Pain Management

Before moving to pharmacological and surgical interventions, it is important to deal with those factors which may intensify or worsen the experience of pain. As mentioned previously, SCI pain may be worsened by decubitus ulcers, a urinary tract infection or stone, autonomic dysreflexia, increased spasticity, anxiety, depression, psychosocial factors and other contributors to post-SCI pain (Davis et al. 1998; Tunks 1986). There are a number of non-pharmacological interventions for post-SCI pain which have been studied from massage to hypnosis.

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