Functional Electrical Stimulation

Table 20: FES Post-SCI Pain


One pre-post trial found 30 minutes of FES rowing over 6 weeks resulted in significant reduction shoulder related pain post SCI.


There is limited level 4 evidence (Wilbanks et al. 2016) that FES improves shoulder pain post SCI.

  • FES may improve musculoskeletal shoulder pain post SCI