Adams JE, Engelke K, Zemel BS, Ward KA. Quantitative computer tomography in children and adolescents: the 2013 ISCD pediatric official positions. J Clin Dens. 2014; 17: 258-74.
Akhigbe T, Chin AS, Svircev JN, Hoenig H, Burns SP, Weaver FM, Bailey L, Carbone L. A retrospective review of lower extremity fracture care in patients with spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med. 2015; 38:2-9.
Alizadeh-Meghrazi M, Masani K, Popovic MR, and Craven BC. Whole-Body Vibration during Passive Standing in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury: Effects of Plate Choice, Frequency, Amplitude, and Subject’s Posture on Vibration Propagation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2012; 4: 963-975.
Arija-Blázquez A, Ceruelo-Abajo S, Díaz-Merino MS, Godino-Durán JA, Martínez-Dhier, Martin JRL, Florensa-Vila, J. Effects of electromyostimulation on muscle and bone in men with acute traumatic spinal cord injury: A randomized clinical trial. J Spinal Cord Med. 2014; 37: 299–309.
Arija-Blázquez A, Ceruelo-Abajo S, Diaz-Merino MS, Godino-Durán JA, Martinez-Dhier L, and Florensa-Vila J. Time-course response in serum markers of bone turnover to a single-bout of electrical stimulation in patients with recent spinal cord injury. Eur J Appl Physiol 2013; 113: 89-97.
Ashe MC, Craven BC, Eng JJ, Krassioukov A, and the SCIRE research team. Prevention and Treatment of Bone Loss After a Spinal Cord Injury: A Systematic Review. Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil 2007; 13: 123-145.
Ashe MC, Eng JJ, Krassioukov A. Physiatrists’ opinions and practice patterns for bone health after SCI. Spinal Cord 2009; 47: 242-8.
Ashe MC, Eng JJ, Krassioukov AV, Warburton DER, Hung C, Tawashy A. Response to Functional Electrical Stimulation Cycling in Women With Spinal Cord Injuries Using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry and Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography: A Case Series. J Spinal Cord Med 2010; 33: 68-72.
Astorino TA, Harness ET and Witzke KA. Effect of chronic activity-based therapy on bone mineral density and bone turnover in persons with spinal cord injury. Eur J Appl Physiol 2013; 113: 3027-3037.
Bauer D, Krege J, Lane N, Leary E, Libanati C, Miller P, Myers G, Silverman S, Vesper HW, Lee D, Payette M, Randall S. National Bone Health Alliance Bone Turnover Marker Project: current practices and the need for US harmonization, standardization, and common reference ranges. Osteoporos Int. 2012; 23: 2425-33.
Bauman WA, Spungen AM, Wang J, Pierson RN Jr, Schwartz E. Continuous loss of bone during chronic immobilization: a monozygotic twin study. Osteoporos Int 1999; 10: 123-7.
Bauman WA, Spungen AM. Body Composition in Aging: Adverse Changes in Able-Bodied Persons and in Those with Spinal Cord Injury. Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil 2001; 6: 22-36.
Bauman WA, Wecht JM, Kirshblum S, Spungen AM, Morrison N, Cirnigliaro C, et al. Effect of pamidronate administration on bone in patients with acute spinal cord injury. J Rehabil Res Dev 2005a; 42: 305-313.
Bauman WA, Spungen AM, Morrison N, Zhang RL, Schwartz E. Effect of vitamin D analog on leg bone mineral density in patients with chronic spinal cord injury. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2005b; 42: 625-634.
Bauman WA, Zhang RL, Morrison N, Spungen AM. Acute suppression of bone turnover with calcium infusion in persons with spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med 2009; 32: 398-403.
Bauman WA, Zhong YG, Schwartz E. Vitamin D deficiency in veterans with chronic spinal cord injury. Metabolism 1995; 44: 1612-6.
BeDell KK, Scremin AM, Perell KL, Kunkel CF. Effects of functional electrical stimulation-induced lower extremity cycling on bone density of spinal cord-injured patients. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 1996; 75: 29-34.
Bélanger M, Stein RB, Wheeler GD, Gordon T, Leduc B. Electrical stimulation: can it increase muscle strength and reverse osteopenia in spinal cord injured individuals? Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2000; 8: 1090-1098.
Ben M, Harvey L, Denis S, et al. Does 12 weeks of regular standing prevent loss of ankle mobility and bone mineral density in people with recent spinal cord injuries? Aust J Physiother. 2005; 51: 251-256.
Bessette L, Ste-Marie LG, Sean S, Davison KS, Beaulieu M, Baranci M, Bessant J, Brown JP. The care gap in diagnosis and treatment of women with a fragility fracture. Osteoporos Int. 2008; 19: 79-86.
Bethel M, Bailey L, Weaver F, et al. Surgical compared with nonsurgical management of fractures in male veterans with chronic spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2015; 53: 402-7.
Bethel M, Weaver FM, Bailey L, Miskevics S, Svircev JN, Burns SP, Hoenig H, Lyles K, Carbone LD. Risk factors for osteoporotic fractures in persons with spinal cord injuries and disorders. Osteoporos Int. 2016; 27: 3011-21.
Biering-Sørensen F, Hansen B, Lee BS. Non-pharmacological treatment and prevention of bone loss after spinal cord injury: a systematic review. Spinal Cord. 2009; 47: 508-18.
Bishop JA, Suarez P, DiPonio L, Ota D, Curtin CM. Surgical Versus Nonsurgical Treatment of Femur Fractures in People With Spinal Cord Injury: An Administrative Analysis of Risks. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2013; 94: 2357-64.
Black DM, Delmas PD, Eastell R, Reid IR, Boonen S, Cauley JA, el al. HORIZON Pivotal Fracture Trial. Once yearly zoledronic acid for treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. New Engl J of Med. 2007; 356: 1809-22.
Blazquez AA, Ceruelo-Abadjo S, Diaz-Merino MS, Godino-Duran A, Martinez-Dhier L, et al. Effects of electromyostimulation on muscle and bone in men with acute traumatic spinal cord injury: A randomized clinical trial. J Spinal Cord Med. 2014; 37: 299-309.
Bloomfield SA, Mysiw WJ, Jackson RD. Bone mass and endocrine adaptations to training in spinal cord injured individuals. Bone 1996; 19: 61-68.
Bone HG, Hosking D, Devogelaer JP, Tucci JR, Emkey RD, Tonino RP, Rodriguez-Portales JA, Downs RW, Gupta J, Santora AC, Liberman UA; Alendronate Phase III Osteoporosis Treatment Study Group.Ten years’ experience with alendronate for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med. 2004; 350: 1189-99.
Brown JP, Albert C, Nassar BA, Adachi JD, Cole D, Davison KS, Dooley KC, Don-Wauchope A, Douville P, Hanley DA, Jamal SA, Josse R, Kaiser S, Krahn J, Krause R, Kremer R, Lepage R, Letendre E, Morin S, Ooi DS, Papaioaonnou A, Ste-Marie LG. Bone turnover markers in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Clin Biochem. 2009; 42: 929–42.
Brown JP, Josse RG; Scientific Advisory Council of the Osteoporosis Society of Canada. 2002 clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in Canada. CMAJ 2002; 12: 167(10 Suppl):S1-34.
Bryson JE, Gourlay ML. Bisphosphonate use in acute and chronic spinal cord injury: a systematic review. J Spinal Cord Med. 2009; 32: 215-25.
Bubbear JS, Gall A, Middleton FRI, Ferguson-Pell M, Swaminathan R, Keen RW. Early treatment with zoledronic acid prevents bone loss at the hip following acute spinal cord injury. Osteoporos Int 2011; 22: 271-279.
Carbone L, Chin AS, Lee TA, Burns SP, Svircev JN, Hoenig H, Akhigbe T, Thomas F, Bailey L, Weaver F. The association of anticonvulsant use with fractures in spinal cord injury. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2013a; 92:1037-46.
Carbone LD, Chin AS, Lee TA, Burns SP, Svircev JN, Hoenig HM, Akhigbe T, Weaver FM. The association of opioid use with incident lower extremity fractures in spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med 2013b; 36:91-6.
Carbone LD, Chin AS, Lee TA, Burns SP, Svircev JN, Hoenigh HM, Bailey L, Weaver FM. Thiazide use is associated with reduced risk for incident lower extremity fractures in men with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2013c; Dec. 27.
Carbone LD, Chin AS, Burns SP, Svircev JN, Hoenig HM, Heggeness M, Bailey L, Weaver FM. Mortality after lower extremity fractures in men with spinal cord injury. J Bone Miner Res 2014; 29: 432-9.
Carvalho DCL, Garlipp CR, Bottini PV, Afaz SH, Moda MA, Cliquet Jr A. Effect of treadmill gait on bone markers and bone mineral density of quadriplegic subjects. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2006; 36: 1357-1363.
Cervinka T, Lynch CL, Giangregorio L, Adachi JD, Papaioannou A, Thabane L, Craven BC. Agreement between fragility fracture risk assessment algorithms as applied to adults with chronic spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2017; 55: 985-93.
Chain A, Koury JC, and Bezerra FF. Physical activity benefits bone density and bone-related hormones in adult men with cervical spinal cord injury. Eur J Appl Physiol 2012; 112: 3179-3186.
Chang KV, Hung CY, Chen WS, Lai MS, Chien KL, Sheng D. Effectiveness of bisphosphonate analogues and functional electrical stimulation on attenuating post-injury osteoporosis in spinal cord injury patients – A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLOS One 2013; 8(11).
Chappard D, Minaire P, Privat C, Berard E, Mendoza-Sarmiento J, Tournebise H, et al. Effects of tiludronate on bone loss in paraplegic patients. J Bone Miner Res 1995; 10: 112-118.
Chen B, Mechanick JI, Nierman DM, Stein A. Combined calcitriol-pamidronate therapy for bone hyperresorption in spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med 2001; 24: 235-240.
Chen SC, Lai CH, Chan WP, Huang MH, Tsai HW, Chen JJ. Increases in bone mineral density after functional electrical stimulation cycling exercises in spinal cord injured patients. Disabil Rehabil 2005; 27: 1337-1341.
Clark JM, Jelbart M, Rischbieth H, et al. Physiological effects of lower extremity functional electrical stimulation in early spinal cord injury: lack of efficacy to prevent bone loss. Spinal Cord. 2007; 45: 78-85.
Comarr AE, Hutchinson RH, Bors E. Extremity fractures of patients with spinal cord injuries. Am J Surg 1962; 103: 732-739.
Coupaud S, McLean AN, Purcell M, Fraser MH, Allan DB. Decreases in bone mineral density at cortical and trabecular sites in the tibia and femur during the first year of spinal cord injury. Bone. 2015; 74: 69-75.
Craven BC, Giangregorio L, Robertson L, Delparte JJ, Ashe MC, Eng JJ. Sublesional Osteoporosis Prevention, Detection, and Treatment: A Decision Guide for Rehabilitation Clinicians Treating Patients with Spinal Cord Injury. Critical Review in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine 2008; 20: 277–321.
Craven BC, Robertson LA, McGillivray CF, Adachi JD. Detection and Treatment of Sublesional Osteoporosis Among Patients with Chronic Spinal Cord Injury: Proposed Paradigms. Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation. 2009; 14.
Craven BC, Giangregorio LM, Alavinia SM, Blencowe LA, Desai N, Hitzig SL, Masani K, Popovic MR. Evaluating the efficacy of functional electrical stimulation therapy assisted walking after chronic motor incomplete spinal cord injury: effects on bone biomarkers and bone strength. The Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine. 2017; 40: 748-58.
de Bruin ED, Frey-Rindova P, Herzog RE, Dietz V, Dambacher MA, Stussi E. Changes of tibia bone properties after spinal cord injury: effects of early intervention. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1999; 80: 214-220.
Demirel G, Yilmaz H, Paker N, Onel S. Osteoporosis after spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 1998; 36: 822-5.
Doherty AL, Battaglino RA, Donovan J, Gagnon D, Lazzari AA, Garshick E, Zafonte R, Morse LR. Adiponectin is a candidate biomarker of lower extremity bone density in men with chronic spinal cord injury. Journal of Bone Mineral Research 2014; 29: 251-259.
Doubelt I, Totosy J, MacDonald MJ, Atkinson SA. Influences of nutrition and adiposity on bone mineral density in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury: A cross-sectional, observational study. Bone Reports. 2015; 2: 26-31.
Dudley-Javoroski S, Petrie MA, McHenry CL, Amelon RE, Saha PK, and Shields RK. Bone architecture adaptations after spinal cord injury: impact of long-term vibration of a constrained lower limb. Osteoporosis International 2016; 27: 1149-1160.
Dudley-Javoroski S, Saha PK, Liang G, Li C, Gao Z, and Shields RK. High dose compressive loads attenuate bone mineral loss in humans with spinal cord injury. Osteoporos Int 2012; 23: 2335-2346.
Dudley-Javoroski S, and Shields RK. Active-resisted stance modulates regional bone mineral density in humans with spinal cord injury. Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine 2013; 36: 191-199.
Dudley-Javoroski S, and Shields RK. Asymmetric bone adaptations to soleus mechanical loading after spinal cord injury. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact. 2008a; 8: 227-38.
Dudley-Javoroski S, and Shields RK. Does estimation and surveillance of mechanical loading interventions for bone loss after spinal cord injury. Phys Ther 2008b; 88: 387-96.
Durosier C, van Lierop A, Ferrari S, Chevalley T, Papapoulos S, Rizzoli R. Association of circulating sclerostin with bone mineral mass, microstructure, and turnover biochemical markers in healthy elderly men and women. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2013; 98: 3873–3883.
Edwards W, Simonian N, Troy K, Schnitzer T. Reduction in Torsional Stiffness and Strength at the Proximal Tibia as a Function of Time since Spinal Cord Injury. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 2015; 30: 1422-1430.
Engelke K, Adams JE, Armbrecht G, Augat P, Bogado CE, Bouxsein ML, Felsenberg D, Ito M, Prevrhal S, Hans DB, Lewiecki EM. Clinical use of quantitative computed tomography and peripheral quantitative computed tomography in the management of osteoporosis in adults: the 2007 ISCD official positions. J Clin Densitom. 2008; 11: 123-62.
Eser P, de Bruin ED, Telley I, Lechner HE, Knecht H, Stussi E. Effect of electrical stimulation-induced cycling on bone mineral density in spinal cord-injured patients. Eur J Clin Invest 2003; 33: 412-419.
Eser P, Frotzler A, Zehnder Y, Denoth J. Fracture threshold in the femur and tibia of people with spinal cord injury as determined by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2005; 86: 498-504.
Eser P, Schiessl H, Willnecker J. Bone loss and steady state after spinal cord injury: a cross-sectional study using pQCT. Journal of Musculoskeletal Neuronal Interactions 2004; 4: 197-198.
Freehafer AA. Limb fractures in patients with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1995; 76: 823-7.
Frey-Rindova P, de Bruin ED, Stussi E, Dambacher MA, Dietz V. Bone mineral density in upper and lower extremities during 12 months after spinal cord injury measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Spinal Cord 2000; 38: 26-32.
Frisbie JH. Fractures after myelopathy: the risk quantified. J Spinal Cord Med 1997; 20: 66-69.
Frotzler A, Coupaud S, Perret C, Kakebeeke TH, Hunt KJ, Donaldson ND, Eser P. High-volume FES-cycling partially reverses bone loss in people with chronic spinal cord injury. Bone 2008 ; 43: 169-76.
Frotzler A, Coupaud S, Perret C, Kakebeeke TH, Hunt KJ, Eser P. Effect of detraining on bone and muscle tissue in subjects with chronic spinal cord injury after a period of electrically-stimulated cycling: A small cohort study. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine 2009; 41: 282-285.
Garland D, Maric Z, Adkins R, Stewart C. Bone Mineral Density about the Knee in Spinal Cord Injured Patients with Pathologic Fractures. Contemporary Orthopedics. 1993; 26: 375-379.
Garland DE, Adkins RH, Kushwaha V, Stewart C. Risk factors for osteoporosis at the knee in the spinal cord injury population. J Spinal Cord Med 2004; 27: 202-206.
Garland DE, Adkins RH, Stewart CA, Ashford R, Vigil D. Regional Osteoporosis in Women Who Have a Complete Spinal Cord Injury. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2001; 83: 1195-1200.
Garland DE, Adkins RH, Stewart CA. Fracture threshold and risk for osteoporosis and pathologic fractures in individuals with spinal cord injury. Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation. 2005; 11: 61-69.
Garland DE, Stewart CA, Adkins RH, Hu SS, Rosen C, Liotta FJ, Weinstein DA. Osteoporosis after spinal cord injury. J Orthop Res 1992; 10: 371-8.
Gaspar AP, Brandao CMA, Lazaretti-Castro M. Bone mass and hormone analysis in patients with spinal cord injury: evidence for a gonadal axis disruption. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2014; 99: 4649-55.
Giangregorio LM, Hicks AL, Webber CE, Phillips SM, Craven BC, Bugaresti JM, et al. Body weight supported treadmill training in acute spinal cord injury: impact on muscle and bone. Spinal Cord 2005; 43: 649-657.
Giangregorio LM, Webber CE, Phillips SM, Hicks AL, Craven BC, Bugaresti JM, et al. Can body weight supported treadmill training increase bone mass and reverse muscle atrophy in individuals with chronic incomplete spinal cord injury? Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2006; 31: 283-291.
Gifre L, Vidal J, Carrasco JL, Muxi A, Portell E, Monegal A, et al. Risk factors for the development of osteoporosis after spinal cord injury. A 12-month follow-up study. Osteoporosis Int. 2015; 26: 2273-2280.
Gifre L, Vidal J, Carrasco JL, Muxi A, Portell E, Monegal A, et al. Denosumab increases sublesional bone mass in osteoporotic individuals with recent spinal cord injury. Osteoporosis International 2016; 27: 405-210.
Gilchrist NL, Frampton CM, Acland RH, Nicholls MG, March RL, Maguire P, et al. Alendronate Prevents Bone Loss in Patients with Acute Spinal Cord Injury: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007; 92: 1385-1390.
Goemaere S, Van Laere M, De Neve P, Kaufman JM. Bone mineral status in paraplegic patients who do or do not perform standing. Osteoporos Int 1994; 4: 138-143.
Goktepe A, Tugco I, Alaca, R, Gunduz S, Nikent M. Does standing protect bone density in patients with chronic spinal cord injury? JSCM 2008; 31: 197-201.
Gordon KE, Wald MJ,and Schnitzer TJ. Effect of parathyroid hormone combined with gait training on bone density and bone architecture in people with chronic spinal cord injury. PM&R 2013; 5: 663-671.
Grassner L, Klein B, Maier D, Bühren V, Vogel M. Lower extremity fractures in patients with spinal cord injury Characteristics, outcome and risk factors for non-unions. The Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine. 2017; 25:1-8.
Griffiths HJ, Bushueff B, Zimmerman RE. Investigation of the loss of bone mineral in patients with spinal cord injury. Paraplegia 1976; 14: 207-12.
Groah SL, Lichy AM, Libin AV, Ljungberg I. Intensive Electrical Stimulation Attenuates Femoral Bone Loss in Acute Spinal Cord Injury. American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2010; 2: 1080-1087.
Hammond ER, Metcalf HM, McDonald JW, Sadowsky CL. Bone Mass in Individuals With Chronic Spinal Cord Injury: Associations With Activity-Based Therapy, Neurologic and Functional Status, a Retrospective Study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2014; 95: 2342-49
Hancock DA, Reed GW, Atkinson PJ. Bone and soft tissue changes in paraplegic patients. Paraplegia 1979; 17: 267-71.
Hangartner TN, Rodgers MM, Glaser RM, Barre PS. Tibial bone density loss in spinal cord injured patients: effects of FES exercise. J Rehabil Res Dev 1994; 31: 50-61.
Invernizzi M, Carda S, Rizzi M, Grana E, Squarazanti DF, Cisari C et al. Evaluation of serum myostatin and sclerostin levels in chronic spinal cord injured patients. Spinal Cord 2015; 53: 615-20.
Johansson H, Odén A, Kanis JA, McCloskey EV, Morris HA, Cooper C, Vasikaran S and the IFCC – IOF Joint Working Group on standardisation of biochemical markers of bone turnover. A meta analysis of reference markers of bone turnover for prediction of fracture. Calcif Tissue Int. 2014; 94: 560-567.
Johnston TE, Marino RJ, Oleson CV, Schmidt-Read M, Leiby BE, Sendecki J, Singh H, Modlesky CM. Musculoskeletal effects of 2 functional electrical stimulation cycling paradigms conducted at different cadences for people with spinal cord injury: A pilot study. Arch Phys M. 2016; 97: 1413-22.
Jacobs PL, Nash MS. Exercise recommendations for individuals with spinal cord injury. Sports Med 2004; 34: 727-51.
Javidan AN, Sabour H, Latifi S, et al. Evaluation of bone mineral loss in patients with chronic traumatic spinal cord injury in Iran. J Spinal Cord Med. 2014; 37: 744-50
Jiang SD, Jiang L, Dai L. Mechanisms of osteoporosis in spinal cord injury. Clinical Endocrinology. 2006; 65: 555-565.
Jones LM, Legge M, Goulding A. Intensive exercise may preserve bone mass of the upper limbs in spinal cord injured males but does not retard demineralization of the lower body. Spinal Cord 2002; 40: 230-235.
Kanis JA, Oden A, Johnell O, Jonsson B, de Laet C, Dawson A. The burden of osteoporotic fractures: a method for setting intervention thresholds. Osteoporos Int. 2001; 12: 417-27.
Kanis JA, McCloskey EV, Harvey NC, Johansson H, Leslie WD. Intervention thresholds and the diagnosis of osteoporosis. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 2015; 30: 1747-53.
Kaplan PE, Roden W, Gilbert E, Richards L, Goldschmidt JW. Reduction of hypercalciuria in tetraplegia after weight-bearing and strengthening exercises. Paraplegia 1981; 19: 289-293.
Karapolat I, Uzumcugil Karapolat H, Kirazli Y, Capaci K, Akkoc Y, Kumanlioglu K. Longitudinal study of bone loss in chronic spinal cord injury patients. J Physical Therapy Science. 2015; 27: 1429-1433
Kunkel CF, Scremin AM, Eisenberg B, Garcia JF, Roberts S, Martinez S. Effect of “standing” on spasticity, contracture, and osteoporosis in paralyzed males. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1993; 74: 73-78.
Lai CH, Chang WHS, Chan WP, Peng CW, Shen LK, Chen JJJ, Chen SC. Effects of Functional Electrical Stimulation Cycling Exercise on Bone Mineral Density Loss in the Early Stages of Spinal Cord Injury. J Rehabil Med 2010; 42:150-154.
Lala D, Craven BC, Thabane L, Papaioannou A, Adachi JD, Popovic MR, Giangregorio LM. Exploring the determinants of fracture risk among individuals with spinal cord injury. Osteoporosis International 2013; 25:177-185.
Lazo MG, Shirazi P, Sam M, Giobbie-Hurder A, Blacconiere MJ, Muppidi M. Osteoporosis and risk of fracture in men with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2001; 39: 208-214.
Leeds EM, Klose J, Ganz W, Serafini A, Green BA. Bone mineral density after bicycle ergometry training. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 1990; 71: 207-9.
Lieber RL, Kelly MJ. Factors influencing quadriceps femoris muscle torque using transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation. Phys Ther 1991; 71: 715-21.
Liu Y, Song CY, Wu SS, Liang QH, Yuan LQ, Liao EY. Novel adipokines and bone metabolism. Int J Endocrinol 2013; 2013.
Maddocks M, Nolan CM, Man WD, Polkey MI, Hart N, Gao W et al. Neuromuscular 516 electrical stimulation to improve exercise capacity in patients with severe COPD: a 517 randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Respir Med 2016; 4: 27-36.
Maffiuletti NA, Gondin J, Place N, Stevens-Lapsley J, Vivodtzev I, Minetto MA. The Clinical Use of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation for Neuromuscular Rehabilitation: What Are We Overlooking? Arch Phys Med. 2018; 99: 806-812.
Mazess RB. Bone densitometry of the axial skeleton. Orthop Clin North Am. Jan 1990; 21: 51-63.
McKinley WO, Jackson AB, Cardenas DD, DeVivo MJ. Long-term medical complications after traumatic spinal cord injury: a regional model systems analysis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1999; 80: 1402-1410.
Mechanick JI, Liu K, Nierman DM, Stein A. Effect of a convenient single 90-mg pamidronate dose on biochemical markers of bone metabolism in patients with acute spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med 2006; 29: 406-12.
Melchiorri G, Andreoli A, Padura E, Sorge R, De Lorenzo A. Use of vibration exercise in spinal cord injury patients who regularly practice sport. Funct Neurol. 2007; 22: 151-154.
Meng Q, Liu X, Shan Q, et al. Acupuncture for treatment of secondary osteoporosis in patients with spinal cord injury: a controlled study. Acupuncture in Medicine. 2014; 32: 381-386.
Minaire P, Berard E, Meunier PJ, Edouard C, Goedert G, Pilonchery G. Effects of disodium dichloromethylene diphosphonate on bone loss in paraplegic patients. J Clin Invest 1981; 68: 1086-1092.
Minaire P, Depassio J, Berard E, Meunier PJ, Edouard C, Pilonchery G, et al. Effects of clodronate on immobilization bone loss. Bone 1987;8 Suppl 1:S63-8.
Miyatani M, Craven BC, Loewenberger E, McGillivray CF, Adachi JD. The dietary intakes of calcium and bone health related nutrients among individuals with and without spinal sord injury. J. Nutr. Ther. 2014; 3:103-113.
Mohr T, Podenphant J, Biering-Sorensen F, Galbo H, Thamsborg G, Kjaer M. Increased bone mineral density after prolonged electrically induced cycle training of paralyzed limbs in spinal cord injured man. Calcif Tissue Int 1997; 61: 22-25.
Moran de Brito CM, Battistella LR, Saito ET, Sakamoto H. Effect of alendronate on bone mineral density in spinal cord injury patients: a pilot study. Spinal Cord 2005; 43: 341-348.
Moreno JC. Protocol for Using Dual Photon Absorptiometry to Measure Bone Mineral Density of the Distal Femur and Proximal Tibia [Master’s thesis]. Hamilton, Ontario, McMaster University; 2001.
Morris HA, Eastell R, Jorgensen NR, Cavalier E, Vasikaran S, Chubb SAP, Kanis JA, Cooper C, Makris K; IFCC-IOF Working Group for Standardisation of Bone Marker Assays (WG-BMA). Clinical usefulness of bone turnover marker concentrations in osteoporosis. Clin Chim Acta. 2017; 467: 34-41.
Morse LR, Giangregorio L, Battaglino RA, et al. VA-Based Survey of Osteoporosis Management in Spinal Cord Injury. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2009a; 1: 240-4.
Morse LR, Lazzari AA, Battaglino R, et al. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry of the distal femur may be more reliable than the proximal tibia in spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2009b; 90: 827-831.
Morse LR, Sudhakar S, Lazzari AA, Tun C, Garshick E, Zafonte R, Battaglino RA. Sclerostin: A candidate biomarker of SCI-induced osteoporosis. Osteoporosis International 2013; 24 :961-968.
Nance PW, Schryvers O, Leslie W, Ludwig S, Krahn J, Uebelhart D. Intravenous pamidronate attenuates bone density loss after acute spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1999; 80: 243-251.
Needham-Shropshire BM, Broton JG, Klose KJ, Lebwohl N, Guest RS, Jacobs PL. Evaluation of a training program for persons with SCI paraplegia using the Parastep 1 ambulation system: part 3. Lack of effect on bone mineral density. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1997; 78: 799-803.
Nelson A, Ahmed S, Harrow J, Fitzgerald S, Sanchez-Anguiano A, Gavin-Dreschnack D. Fall-related fractures in persons with spinal cord impairment: a descriptive analysis. SCI Nurs 2003; 20: 30-37.
Ogilvie C, Bowker P, Rowley DI. The physiological benefits of paraplegic orthotically aided walking. Paraplegia 1993; 31: 111-115.
Pacy PJ, Hesp R, Halliday DA, Katz D, Cameron G, Reeve J. Muscle and bone in paraplegic patients, and the effect of functional electrical stimulation. Clin Sci (Lond) 1988; 75: 481-487.
Pearson EG, Nance PW, Leslie WD, Ludwig S. Cyclical etidronate: its effect on bone density in patients with acute spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1997; 78: 269-272.
Pelletier CA, Dumont FS, Leblond J, Noreau L, Giangregorio L, Craven BC. Self-report of one-year fracture incidence and osteoporosis prevalence in a community cohort of canadians with spinal cord injury. Top. Spinal Cord Inj. Rehabil. 2014; 20:302–309.
Ragnarsson KT, Sell GH. Lower extremity fractures after spinal cord injury: a retrospective study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1981; 62: 418-423.
Reiter AL, Volk A, Vollmar J, Fromm B, Gerner HJ. Changes of basic bone turnover parameters in short-term and long-term patients with spinal cord injury. Eur Spine J. 2007; 16: 771–6.
Rodgers MM, Glaser RM, Figoni SF, Hooker SP, Ezenwa BN, Collins SR, et al. Musculoskeletal responses of spinal cord injured individuals to functional stimulation-induced knee extension exercise training. J Rehabil Res Dev 1991; 28: 19-26.
Ross AC, Manson JE, Abrams SA, et al. The 2011 report on dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D from the Institute of Medicine: what clinicians need to know. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011; 96: 53-58.
Sabour H, Larijani B, Vafa MR, Hadan MR, Heshmat R, Meybodi HA, Razavi HE, Javidan AN, and Shidfar F. The effects of n-3 fatty acids on inflammatory cytokines in osteoporotic spinal cord injured patients: a randomized clinical trial. J Res Med Sci 2012; 17: 322-327.
Schnitzer TJ, Kim K, Marks J, Yeasted R, Simonian N, Chen D. Zoledronic Acid Treatment After Acute Spinal Cord Injury: Results of a Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Trial. PM R. 2016; 8: 833-43.
Shapiro J, Smith B, Beck T, Ballard P, Dapthary M, BrintzenhofeSzoc K, et al. Treatment with Zoledronic Acid Ameliorates Negative Geometric Changes in the Proximal Femur following Acute Spinal Cord Injury. Calcif Tissue Int. 2007; 80: 316–322.
Shepherd JA. Body Composition in Colin G. Miller, Joel Krasnow, Lawrence H. Schwartz (eds.), Medical Imaging in Clinical Trials. Springer Science & Business Media, 30 Jan 2014. Page 261
Shields RK, Dudley-Javoroski S, Law LA. Electrically induced muscle contractions influence bone density decline after spinal cord injury. Spine. 2006a; 31: 548-553.
Shields RK, Dudley-Javoroski S. Musculoskeletal adaptations in chronic spinal cord injury: Effects of long-term soleus electrical stimulation training. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2007; 21: 169-179.
Shields RK, Dudley-Javoroski S. Musculoskeletal plasticity after acute spinal cord injury: effects of long-term neuromuscular electrical stimulation training. J Neurophysiol. 2006b; 95: 2380-2390.
Tan C, Battaglino R, Doherty A, et al. Adiponectin is associated with bone strength and fracture history in paralyzed men with spinal cord injury. Osteoporosis Int. 2014; 25: 2599-2607
Thoumie P, Le Claire G, Beillot J, Dassonville J, Chevalier T, Perrouin-Verbe B, et al. Restoration of functional gait in paraplegic patients with the RGO-II hybrid orthosis. A multicenter controlled study. II: Physiological evaluation. Paraplegia 1995; 33: 654-659.
Tomey KM, Chen DM, Wamg X, Braunschweig CL. Dietary Intake and Nutritional Status of Urban Community-Dwelling Men with Paraplegia. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2005; 86: 664-671.
Varghese SM, Chandy BR, Thomas R, Tharion G. Effect of zoledronic acid on osteoporosis after chronic spinal cord injury: a randomized controlled trial. Crit Rev Phys Rehabil Med. 2016; 28: 85-93.
Vasikaran S, Eastell R, Bruyere O, Foldes AJ, Garnero P, Griesmacher A, McClung M, Morris HA, Silverman S, Trenti T, Wahl DA, Cooper C, Kanis JA; IOF-IFCC Bone Marker Standards Working Group. Markers of bone turnover for the prediction of fracture risk and monitoring of osteoporosis treatment: a need for international reference standards. Osteoporos Int 2011; 22: 391-420.
Vestergaard P, Krogh K, Rejnmark L, Mosekilde L. Fracture rates and risk factors for fractures in patients with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 1998; 36: 790-796.
Warden SJ, Bennell KL, Matthews B, Brown DJ, McMeeken JM, Wark JD. Efficacy of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound in the prevention of osteoporosis following spinal cord injury. Bone 2001; 29: 431-436.
Wheater G, Elshahaly M, Tuck SP, Datta HK, van Laar JM. The clinical utility of bone marker measurements in osteoporosis. J Transl Med. 2013; 29; 11:201.
Wuermser LA, Beck LA, Lamb JL, Atkinson SA. The effect of low-magnitude whole body vibration on bone density and microstructure in men and women with chronic motor complete paraplegia. J Spinal Cord Med. 2015; 38: 178-186.
Zehnder Y, Luthi M, Michel D, Knecht H, Perrelet R, Neto I, et al. Long-term changes in bone metabolism, bone mineral density, quantitative ultrasound parameters, and fracture incidence after spinal cord injury: a cross-sectional observational study in 100 paraplegic men. Osteoporos Int 2004a; 15: 180-189.
Zehnder Y, Risi S, Michel D, Knecht H, Perrelet R, Kraenzlin M, et al. Prevention of bone loss in paraplegics over 2 years with alendronate. J Bone Miner Res 2004b; 19: 1067-1074.
Zysset P, Pahr D, Engelke K, Genant HK, McClung MR, Kendler DL, Recknor C, Kinzl M, Schwiedrzik J, Museyko O, Wang A. Comparison of proximal femur and vertebral body strength improvements in the FREEDOM trial using an alternative finite element methodology. Bone. 2015; 81: 122-30.