Electrical Stimulation


Although there were no RCTs that assessed the effect of NMES, Bélanger et al. (2000) produced impressive results with a level 2, non-randomized trial which used one limb as the treatment and the other as the control. Following training (93.4% compliance), the BMD recovered close to 30% of BMD decline when compared with non-disabled values. Stimulation effects only occur over the areas of stimulation and returned to baseline within months once stimulation is stopped (Mohr et al. 1997). However, there is a clear need for further studies, especially RCTs, testing the long-term effects of NMES with weight-bearing on bone health.


There is level 2 evidence (from 1 prospective controlled trial: Bélanger et al. 2000) that NMES either increased or maintained BMD over the stimulated areas.