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Bone Health


Adams JE, Engelke K, Zemel BS, Ward KA. Quantitative computer tomography in children and adolescents: the 2013 ISCD pediatric official positions. J Clin Dens. 2014; 17: 258-74.

Akhigbe T, Chin AS, Svircev JN, Hoenig H, Burns SP, Weaver FM, Bailey L, Carbone L. A retrospective review of lower extremity fracture care in patients with spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med. 2015; 38:2-9.

Alizadeh-Meghrazi M, Masani K, Popovic MR, and Craven BC. Whole-Body Vibration during Passive Standing in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury: Effects of Plate Choice, Frequency, Amplitude, and Subject’s Posture on Vibration Propagation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2012; 4: 963-975.

Arija-Blázquez A, Ceruelo-Abajo S, Díaz-Merino MS, Godino-Durán JA, Martínez-Dhier, Martin JRL,   Florensa-Vila, J. Effects of electromyostimulation on muscle and bone in men with acute traumatic spinal cord injury: A randomized clinical trial. J Spinal Cord Med. 2014; 37: 299–309.

Arija-Blázquez A, Ceruelo-Abajo S, Diaz-Merino MS, Godino-Durán JA, Martinez-Dhier L, and Florensa-Vila J. Time-course response in serum markers of bone turnover to a single-bout of electrical stimulation in patients with recent spinal cord injury. Eur J Appl Physiol 2013; 113: 89-97.

Ashe MC, Craven BC, Eng JJ, Krassioukov A, and the SCIRE research team. Prevention and Treatment of Bone Loss After a Spinal Cord Injury: A Systematic Review. Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil 2007; 13: 123-145.

Ashe MC, Eng JJ, Krassioukov A. Physiatrists’ opinions and practice patterns for bone health after SCI. Spinal Cord 2009; 47: 242-8.

Ashe MC, Eng JJ, Krassioukov AV, Warburton DER, Hung C, Tawashy A. Response to Functional Electrical Stimulation Cycling in Women With Spinal Cord Injuries Using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry and Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography: A Case Series. J Spinal Cord Med 2010; 33: 68-72.

Astorino TA, Harness ET and Witzke KA. Effect of chronic activity-based therapy on bone mineral density and bone turnover in persons with spinal cord injury. Eur J Appl Physiol 2013; 113: 3027-3037.

Bauer D, Krege J, Lane N, Leary E, Libanati C, Miller P, Myers G, Silverman S, Vesper HW, Lee D, Payette M, Randall S. National Bone Health Alliance Bone Turnover Marker Project: current practices and the need for US harmonization, standardization, and common reference ranges. Osteoporos Int. 2012; 23: 2425-33.

Bauman WA, Spungen AM, Wang J, Pierson RN Jr, Schwartz E. Continuous loss of bone during chronic immobilization: a monozygotic twin study. Osteoporos Int 1999; 10: 123-7.

Bauman WA, Spungen AM. Body Composition in Aging: Adverse Changes in Able-Bodied Persons and in Those with Spinal Cord Injury. Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil 2001; 6: 22-36.

Bauman WA, Wecht JM, Kirshblum S, Spungen AM, Morrison N, Cirnigliaro C, et al. Effect of pamidronate administration on bone in patients with acute spinal cord injury. J Rehabil Res Dev 2005a; 42: 305-313.

Bauman WA, Spungen AM, Morrison N, Zhang RL, Schwartz E.  Effect of vitamin D analog on leg bone mineral density in patients with chronic spinal cord injury.  J Rehabil Res Dev. 2005b; 42: 625-634.

Bauman WA, Zhang RL, Morrison N, Spungen AM. Acute suppression of bone turnover with calcium infusion in persons with spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med 2009; 32: 398-403.

Bauman WA, Zhong YG, Schwartz E. Vitamin D deficiency in veterans with chronic spinal cord injury. Metabolism 1995; 44: 1612-6.

BeDell KK, Scremin AM, Perell KL, Kunkel CF. Effects of functional electrical stimulation-induced lower extremity cycling on bone density of spinal cord-injured patients. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 1996; 75: 29-34.

Bélanger M, Stein RB, Wheeler GD, Gordon T, Leduc B. Electrical stimulation: can it increase muscle strength and reverse osteopenia in spinal cord injured individuals? Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2000; 8: 1090-1098.

Ben M, Harvey L, Denis S, et al.  Does 12 weeks of regular standing prevent loss of ankle mobility and bone mineral density in people with recent spinal cord injuries? Aust J Physiother. 2005; 51: 251-256.

Bessette L, Ste-Marie LG, Sean S, Davison KS, Beaulieu M, Baranci M, Bessant J, Brown JP. The care gap in diagnosis and treatment of women with a fragility fracture. Osteoporos Int. 2008; 19: 79-86.

Bethel M, Bailey L, Weaver F, et al. Surgical compared with nonsurgical management of fractures in male veterans with chronic spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2015; 53: 402-7.

Bethel M, Weaver FM, Bailey L, Miskevics S, Svircev JN, Burns SP, Hoenig H, Lyles K, Carbone LD. Risk factors for osteoporotic fractures in persons with spinal cord injuries and disorders. Osteoporos Int. 2016; 27: 3011-21.

Biering-Sørensen F, Hansen B, Lee BS.  Non-pharmacological treatment and prevention of bone loss after spinal cord injury: a systematic review. Spinal Cord. 2009; 47: 508-18.

Bishop JA, Suarez P, DiPonio L, Ota D, Curtin CM. Surgical Versus Nonsurgical Treatment of Femur Fractures in People With Spinal Cord Injury: An Administrative Analysis of Risks. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2013; 94: 2357-64.

Black DM, Delmas PD, Eastell R, Reid IR, Boonen S, Cauley JA, el al. HORIZON Pivotal Fracture Trial. Once yearly zoledronic acid for treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. New Engl J of Med. 2007; 356: 1809-22.

Blazquez AA, Ceruelo-Abadjo S, Diaz-Merino MS, Godino-Duran A, Martinez-Dhier L, et al. Effects of electromyostimulation on muscle and bone in men with acute traumatic spinal cord injury: A randomized clinical trial. J Spinal Cord Med. 2014; 37: 299-309.

Bloomfield SA, Mysiw WJ, Jackson RD. Bone mass and endocrine adaptations to training in spinal cord injured individuals. Bone 1996; 19: 61-68.

Bone HG, Hosking D, Devogelaer JP, Tucci JR, Emkey RD, Tonino RP, Rodriguez-Portales JA, Downs RW, Gupta J, Santora AC, Liberman UA; Alendronate Phase III Osteoporosis Treatment Study Group.Ten years’ experience with alendronate for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med. 2004; 350: 1189-99.

Brown JP, Albert C, Nassar BA, Adachi JD, Cole D, Davison KS, Dooley KC, Don-Wauchope A, Douville P, Hanley DA, Jamal SA, Josse R, Kaiser S, Krahn J, Krause R, Kremer R, Lepage R, Letendre E, Morin S, Ooi DS, Papaioaonnou A, Ste-Marie LG. Bone turnover markers in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Clin Biochem. 2009; 42: 929–42.

Brown JP, Josse RG; Scientific Advisory Council of the Osteoporosis Society of Canada. 2002 clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in Canada. CMAJ 2002; 12: 167(10 Suppl):S1-34.

Bryson JE, Gourlay ML.  Bisphosphonate use in acute and chronic spinal cord injury: a systematic review. J Spinal Cord Med. 2009; 32: 215-25.

Bubbear JS, Gall A, Middleton FRI, Ferguson-Pell M, Swaminathan R, Keen RW. Early treatment with zoledronic acid prevents bone loss at the hip following acute spinal cord injury. Osteoporos Int 2011; 22: 271-279.

Carbone L, Chin AS, Lee TA, Burns SP, Svircev JN, Hoenig H, Akhigbe T, Thomas F, Bailey L, Weaver F. The association of anticonvulsant use with fractures in spinal cord injury. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2013a; 92:1037-46.

Carbone LD, Chin AS, Lee TA, Burns SP, Svircev JN, Hoenig HM, Akhigbe T, Weaver FM. The association of opioid use with incident lower extremity fractures in spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med 2013b; 36:91-6.

Carbone LD, Chin AS, Lee TA, Burns SP, Svircev JN, Hoenigh HM, Bailey L, Weaver FM. Thiazide use is associated with reduced risk for incident lower extremity fractures in men with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2013c; Dec. 27.

Carbone LD, Chin AS, Burns SP, Svircev JN, Hoenig HM, Heggeness M, Bailey L, Weaver FM. Mortality after lower extremity fractures in men with spinal cord injury. J Bone Miner Res 2014; 29: 432-9.

Carvalho DCL, Garlipp CR, Bottini PV, Afaz SH, Moda MA, Cliquet Jr A. Effect of treadmill gait on bone markers and bone mineral density of quadriplegic subjects.  Braz J Med Biol Res. 2006; 36: 1357-1363.

Cervinka T, Lynch CL, Giangregorio L, Adachi JD, Papaioannou A, Thabane L, Craven BC. Agreement between fragility fracture risk assessment algorithms as applied to adults with chronic spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2017; 55: 985-93.

Chain A, Koury JC, and Bezerra FF. Physical activity benefits bone density and bone-related hormones in adult men with cervical spinal cord injury. Eur J Appl Physiol 2012; 112: 3179-3186.

Chang KV, Hung CY, Chen WS, Lai MS, Chien KL, Sheng D. Effectiveness of bisphosphonate analogues and functional electrical stimulation on attenuating post-injury osteoporosis in spinal cord injury patients – A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLOS One 2013; 8(11).

Chappard D, Minaire P, Privat C, Berard E, Mendoza-Sarmiento J, Tournebise H, et al. Effects of tiludronate on bone loss in paraplegic patients. J Bone Miner Res 1995; 10: 112-118.

Chen B, Mechanick JI, Nierman DM, Stein A. Combined calcitriol-pamidronate therapy for bone hyperresorption in spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med 2001; 24: 235-240.

Chen SC, Lai CH, Chan WP, Huang MH, Tsai HW, Chen JJ. Increases in bone mineral density after functional electrical stimulation cycling exercises in spinal cord injured patients. Disabil Rehabil 2005; 27: 1337-1341.

Clark JM, Jelbart M, Rischbieth H, et al.  Physiological effects of lower extremity functional electrical stimulation in early spinal cord injury: lack of efficacy to prevent bone loss. Spinal Cord. 2007; 45: 78-85.

Comarr AE, Hutchinson RH, Bors E. Extremity fractures of patients with spinal cord injuries. Am J Surg 1962; 103: 732-739.

Coupaud S, McLean AN, Purcell M, Fraser MH, Allan DB. Decreases in bone mineral density at cortical and trabecular sites in the tibia and femur during the first year of spinal cord injury. Bone. 2015; 74: 69-75.

Craven BC, Giangregorio L, Robertson L, Delparte JJ, Ashe MC, Eng JJ.  Sublesional Osteoporosis Prevention, Detection, and Treatment: A Decision Guide for Rehabilitation Clinicians Treating Patients with Spinal Cord Injury. Critical Review in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine 2008; 20: 277–321.

Craven BC, Robertson LA, McGillivray CF, Adachi JD.  Detection and Treatment of Sublesional Osteoporosis Among Patients with Chronic Spinal Cord Injury: Proposed Paradigms. Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation. 2009; 14.

Craven BC, Giangregorio LM, Alavinia SM, Blencowe LA, Desai N, Hitzig SL, Masani K, Popovic MR. Evaluating the efficacy of functional electrical stimulation therapy assisted walking after chronic motor incomplete spinal cord injury: effects on bone biomarkers and bone strength. The Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine. 2017; 40: 748-58.

de Bruin ED, Frey-Rindova P, Herzog RE, Dietz V, Dambacher MA, Stussi E. Changes of tibia bone properties after spinal cord injury: effects of early intervention. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1999; 80: 214-220.

Demirel G, Yilmaz H, Paker N, Onel S. Osteoporosis after spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 1998; 36: 822-5.

Doherty AL, Battaglino RA, Donovan J, Gagnon D, Lazzari AA, Garshick E, Zafonte R, Morse LR. Adiponectin is a candidate biomarker of lower extremity bone density in men with chronic spinal cord injury. Journal of Bone Mineral Research 2014; 29: 251-259.

Doubelt I, Totosy J, MacDonald MJ, Atkinson SA. Influences of nutrition and adiposity on bone mineral density in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury: A cross-sectional, observational study. Bone Reports. 2015; 2: 26-31.

Dudley-Javoroski S, Petrie MA, McHenry CL, Amelon RE, Saha PK, and Shields RK. Bone architecture adaptations after spinal cord injury: impact of long-term vibration of a constrained lower limb. Osteoporosis International 2016; 27: 1149-1160.

Dudley-Javoroski S, Saha PK, Liang G, Li C, Gao Z, and Shields RK. High dose compressive loads attenuate bone mineral loss in humans with spinal cord injury. Osteoporos Int 2012; 23: 2335-2346.

Dudley-Javoroski S, and Shields RK. Active-resisted stance modulates regional bone mineral density in humans with spinal cord injury. Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine 2013; 36: 191-199.

Dudley-Javoroski S, and Shields RK. Asymmetric bone adaptations to soleus mechanical loading after spinal cord injury. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact. 2008a; 8: 227-38.

Dudley-Javoroski S, and Shields RK. Does estimation and surveillance of mechanical loading interventions for bone loss after spinal cord injury. Phys Ther 2008b; 88: 387-96.

Durosier C, van Lierop A, Ferrari S, Chevalley T, Papapoulos S, Rizzoli R. Association of circulating sclerostin with bone mineral mass, microstructure, and turnover biochemical markers in healthy elderly men and women. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2013; 98: 3873–3883.

Edwards W, Simonian N, Troy K, Schnitzer T. Reduction in Torsional Stiffness and Strength at the Proximal Tibia as a Function of Time since Spinal Cord Injury. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 2015; 30: 1422-1430.

Engelke K, Adams JE, Armbrecht G, Augat P, Bogado CE, Bouxsein ML, Felsenberg D, Ito M, Prevrhal S, Hans DB, Lewiecki EM. Clinical use of quantitative computed tomography and peripheral quantitative computed tomography in the management of osteoporosis in adults: the 2007 ISCD official positions. J Clin Densitom. 2008; 11: 123-62.

Eser P, de Bruin ED, Telley I, Lechner HE, Knecht H, Stussi E. Effect of electrical stimulation-induced cycling on bone mineral density in spinal cord-injured patients. Eur J Clin Invest 2003; 33: 412-419.

Eser P, Frotzler A, Zehnder Y, Denoth J. Fracture threshold in the femur and tibia of people with spinal cord injury as determined by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2005; 86: 498-504.

Eser P, Schiessl H, Willnecker J. Bone loss and steady state after spinal cord injury: a cross-sectional study using pQCT. Journal of Musculoskeletal Neuronal Interactions 2004; 4: 197-198.

Freehafer AA. Limb fractures in patients with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1995; 76: 823-7.

Frey-Rindova P, de Bruin ED, Stussi E, Dambacher MA, Dietz V. Bone mineral density in upper and lower extremities during 12 months after spinal cord injury measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Spinal Cord 2000; 38: 26-32.

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Frotzler A, Coupaud S, Perret C, Kakebeeke TH, Hunt KJ, Donaldson ND, Eser P. High-volume FES-cycling partially reverses bone loss in people with chronic spinal cord injury. Bone 2008 ; 43: 169-76.

Frotzler A, Coupaud S, Perret C, Kakebeeke TH, Hunt KJ, Eser P. Effect of detraining on bone and muscle tissue in subjects with chronic spinal cord injury after a period of electrically-stimulated cycling: A small cohort study. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine 2009; 41: 282-285.

Garland D, Maric Z, Adkins R, Stewart C. Bone Mineral Density about the Knee in Spinal Cord Injured Patients with Pathologic Fractures. Contemporary Orthopedics. 1993; 26: 375-379.

Garland DE, Adkins RH, Kushwaha V, Stewart C. Risk factors for osteoporosis at the knee in the spinal cord injury population. J Spinal Cord Med 2004; 27: 202-206.

Garland DE, Adkins RH, Stewart CA, Ashford R, Vigil D. Regional Osteoporosis in Women Who Have a Complete Spinal Cord Injury. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2001; 83: 1195-1200.

Garland DE, Adkins RH, Stewart CA. Fracture threshold and risk for osteoporosis and pathologic fractures in individuals with spinal cord injury. Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation. 2005; 11: 61-69.

Garland DE, Stewart CA, Adkins RH, Hu SS, Rosen C, Liotta FJ, Weinstein DA. Osteoporosis after spinal cord injury. J Orthop Res 1992; 10: 371-8.

Gaspar AP, Brandao CMA, Lazaretti-Castro M. Bone mass and hormone analysis in patients with spinal cord injury: evidence for a gonadal axis disruption. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2014; 99: 4649-55.

Giangregorio LM, Hicks AL, Webber CE, Phillips SM, Craven BC, Bugaresti JM, et al. Body weight supported treadmill training in acute spinal cord injury: impact on muscle and bone. Spinal Cord 2005; 43: 649-657.

Giangregorio LM, Webber CE, Phillips SM, Hicks AL, Craven BC, Bugaresti JM, et al.  Can body weight supported treadmill training increase bone mass and reverse muscle atrophy in individuals with chronic incomplete spinal cord injury? Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2006; 31: 283-291.

Gifre L, Vidal J, Carrasco JL, Muxi A, Portell E, Monegal A, et al. Risk factors for the development of osteoporosis after spinal cord injury. A 12-month follow-up study. Osteoporosis Int. 2015; 26: 2273-2280.

Gifre L, Vidal J, Carrasco JL, Muxi A, Portell E, Monegal A, et al. Denosumab increases sublesional bone mass in osteoporotic individuals with recent spinal cord injury. Osteoporosis International 2016; 27: 405-210.

Gilchrist NL, Frampton CM, Acland RH, Nicholls MG, March RL, Maguire P, et al.  Alendronate Prevents Bone Loss in Patients with Acute Spinal Cord Injury: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007; 92: 1385-1390.

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Hammond ER, Metcalf HM, McDonald JW, Sadowsky CL. Bone Mass in Individuals With Chronic Spinal Cord Injury: Associations With Activity-Based Therapy, Neurologic and Functional Status, a Retrospective Study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2014; 95: 2342-49

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