Non-Pharmacologic Therapy: Treatment (1 Year Post-Injury and Beyond)

In this section, non-pharmacological rehabilitation treatment modalities are divided into six sub-sections: Electrical stimulation, vibration, functional electrical stimulation (FES) cycle ergometry, standing and walking, and physical activity (Tables 8, 9, 10, 11). Both ES and FES use cyclical patterns of electrical stimulation that simulate muscular activity. However, FES is directed towards the attainment of purposeful tasks such as cycling or walking. Electrical stimulation, on the other hand, is focused on producing muscle contractions (isometric, isotonic). In some interventions, ES techniques are used as a training stimulus to prepare muscles for a subsequent FES training regimen.