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25(OH)D       25-hydroxy vitamin D

aBMD            areal bone mineral density

AIS                  American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale

ALP                alkaline phosphatase

BALP             bone-specific alkaline phosphatase

BMC              bone mineral content

BMD              bone mineral density

BMI                body mass index

CI                    confidence interval

CINP              C-terminal propeptide of type I collagen

CT                   computed tomography

CTX                Type I collagen C-telopeptide

CV                  coefficient of variation

DPA               dual-energy photon absorptiometry

DPD               deoxypyridinoline

DXA                dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

FES                functional electrical stimulation

HR                  hazard ratio

HR-pQCT     High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography

IFCC-IOF      International Osteoporosis Foundation and the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine

ISCD              International Society for Clinical Densitometry

LSC                least significant change

MCID             minimal clinically important difference

MRI                magnetic resonance imaging

NBHA            National Bone Health Alliance

NMES            neuromuscular electrical stimulation

NTX                N-telopeptide

OC                  osteocalcin

OR                  odds ratio

P1NP              procollagen Type I N propeptide obtained from serum

pQCT             peripheral quantitative computed tomography

PTH                parathyroid hormone

PYD                total pyridinoline

QCT                quantitative computed tomography

RCT                randomized controlled trial

SCI                 spinal cord injury

SD                  standard deviation

SLOP             sublesional osteoporosis

TPI                  time post-injury

TNF                tumour necrosis factor a

vBMD            volumetric bone mineral density