AA

Visual Imagery

Visual imagery therapy is a cognitive technique which uses guided images to alter perceptions and modify behaviour. It has been used in various studies to alleviate pain responses by changing feelings of perceived discomfort (Kazdin 2001; Korn 2002; Kwekkeboom 2001). It is based on a cortical model of pathological pain (Harris, 1999). This model states that the injury causes a mismatch between motor output and sensory feedback which in turn contributes to the pain. Studies have found normalization of the cortical proprioception representation results in recovery from pain (Floor et al. 2000; Maihofner et al. 2004; Pleger et al. 2005).

Table 13: Visual Imagery

Discussion

Soler et al. (2010) also examined the effectiveness of visual imagery for neuropathic pain post SCI. As indicated previously, the authors found the greatest improvement in pain perception, pain reduction, ability to work, perform daily tasks, enjoyment, interference of sleep in the combined tDCS and visual illusion group (p<0.05). Thirty percent of participants in this combined group also reported a 30% or more improvement in pain intensity. The visual illusion group reported significant improvement in neuropathic pain intensity on the last day of treatment (p=0.02); however, the effect was not maintained over 12 weeks.

Moseley (2007) reported on five individuals with both a T12-L3 paraplegia (AIS B) and neuropathic pain who engaged in a virtual activity, where they were led through a guided walking exercise, visualizing that they were walking pain free. Of the four subjects who completed the trial (one patient withdrew from the study earlier due to distress), there was a mean 42 mm reduction in neuropathic pain following individual treatments, and 53 and 42 mm reductions immediately and 3 months following virtual walking daily for 3 weeks based on a 100 mm visual analog scale. Control treatments were visual imagery alone, and watching a movie, both of which resulted in less dramatic pain reduction; however, no statistical comparisons were done. One cohort study (Kumru et al. 2012) found that combined transcranial direct current stimulation and visual imagery may improve pain intensity among individuals with neuropathic pain post SCI.

Gustin et al. (2008) involved the participants to imagine right ankle plantarflexion and dorsiflexion for 8 minutes. In contrast to the studies above, a significant increase in neuropathic pain intensity post guided visual imagery, (p<0.01).

Conclusion

There is conflicting level 1b evidence (from one randomized controlled trial, a chohort study and two pre-post studies; Soler et al. 2010; Kumru et al. 2013; Gustin et al. 2008; Moseley 2007) that visual imagery may reduce at level neuropathic pain post SCI for a short period.

  • Visual imagery may reduce neuropathic pain post SCI.