Ada, L., Dorsch, S., & Canning, C. G. (2006). Strengthening interventions increase strength and improve activity after stroke: a systematic review. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy52(4), 241-248.

Addas, B. M., & Midha, R. (2009). Nerve transfers for severe nerve injury. Neurosurgery clinics of North America20(1), 27-38.

Ahuja, C. S., Nori, S., Tetreault, L., Wilson, J., Kwon, B., Harrop, J., … & Fehlings, M. G. (2017). Traumatic spinal cord injury—repair and regeneration. Neurosurgery80(3S), S9-S22.

Alon, G., & McBride, K. (2003). Persons with C5 or C6 tetraplegia achieve selected functional gains using a neuroprosthesis. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation84(1), 119-124.

Anderson, K. D. (2004). Targeting recovery: priorities of the spinal cord-injured population. Journal of neurotrauma21(10), 1371-1383.

Anderson, K. D., Fridén, J., & Lieber, R. L. (2009). Acceptable benefits and risks associated with surgically improving arm function in individuals living with cervical spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord47(4), 334.

Athanasiou, A., Terzopoulos, N., Pandria, N., Xygonakis, I., Foroglou, N., Polyzoidis, K., & Bamidis, P. D. (2018). Functional brain connectivity during multiple motor imagery tasks in spinal cord injury. Neural plasticity2018.

Baker, L. L., McNeal, D. R., Benton, L. A., Bowman, B. R., & Waters, R. L. (1993). NeuroMuscular Electrical Stimulation: A Practical Guide. Downey, CA: Los Amigos Research and Education Institute.

Backus, D. (2010). Exploring the potential for neural recovery after incomplete tetraplegia through nonsurgical interventions. PM&R2(12), S279-S285.

Backus, D., Cordo, P., Gillott, A., Kandilakis, C., Mori, M., & Raslan, A. M. (2014). Assisted movement with proprioceptive stimulation reduces impairment and restores function in incomplete spinal cord injury. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation95(8), 1447-1453.

Barlow, J., Wright, C., Sheasby, J., Turner, A., & Hainsworth, J. (2002). Self-management approaches for people with chronic conditions: a review. Patient education and counseling48(2), 177-187.

Bedbrook, G. M. (2013). The care and management of spinal cord injuries. Springer Science & Business Media.

Beekhuizen, K. S. (2005). New perspectives on improving upper extremity function after spinal cord injury. Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy29(3), 157-162.

Beekhuizen, K. S., & Field-Fote, E. C. (2008). Sensory stimulation augments the effects of massed practice training in persons with tetraplegia. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation89(4), 602-608.

Bekhet, A. H., Bochkezanian, V., Saab, I. M., & Gorgey, A. S. (2019). The effects of electrical stimulation parameters in managing spasticity after spinal cord injury: a systematic review. American journal of physical medicine & rehabilitation98(6), 484-499.

Belci, M., Catley, M., Husain, M., Frankel, H. L., & Davey, N. J. (2004). Magnetic brain stimulation can improve clinical outcome in incomplete spinal cord injured patients. Spinal cord42(7), 417.

Bennett, M. I., Bagnall, A. M., & José Closs, S. (2009). How effective are patient-based educational interventions in the management of cancer pain? Systematic review and meta-analysis. Pain, 143(3), 192–199.

Bernet, M., Sommerhalder, K., Mischke, C., Hahn, S., & Wyss, A. (2018). “Theory Does Not Get You From Bed to Wheelchair.” Rehabilitation Nursing, 1.doi:10.1097/rnj.0000000000000175

Bertelli, J. A., Ghizoni, M. F., & Tacca, C. P. (2011). Transfer of the teres minor motor branch for triceps reinnervation in tetraplegia: case report. Journal of neurosurgery114(5), 1457-1460.

Bertelli, J. A., & Ghizoni, M. F. (2017). Nerve transfers for restoration of finger flexion in patients with tetraplegia. Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine26(1), 55-61.

Bertelli, J. A., & Ghizoni, M. F. (2015). Nerve transfers for elbow and finger extension reconstruction in midcervical spinal cord injuries. Journal of neurosurgery122(1), 121-127.

Birbaumer, N., Murguialday, A. R., & Cohen, L. (2008). Brain–computer interface in paralysis. Current opinion in neurology21(6), 634-638.

Bizzi, E., Cheung, V. C. K., d’Avella, A., Saltiel, P., & Tresch, M. (2008). Combining modules for movement. Brain research reviews57(1), 125-133.

Blabe, C. H., Gilja, V., Chestek, C. A., Shenoy, K. V., Anderson, K. D., & Henderson, J. M. (2015). Assessment of brain–machine interfaces from the perspective of people with paralysis. Journal of neural engineering12(4), 043002.

Blackburn, J. (2003). Trager® psychophysical integration–an overview. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies7(4), 233-239.

Borges, L. R., Fernandes, A. B., Melo, L. P., Guerra, R. O., & Campos, T. F. (2018). Action observation for upper limb rehabilitation after stroke. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 21(10), 234-244.

Bradbury, E. J., Moon, L. D., Popat, R. J., King, V. R., Bennett, G. S., Patel, P. N., … & McMahon, S. B. (2002). Chondroitinase ABC promotes functional recovery after spinal cord injury. Nature416(6881), 636.

Brown, J. M. (2011). Nerve transfers in tetraplegia I: background and technique. Surgical neurology international2.

Brown, J. M. (2012). The reconstructive neurosurgery of spinal cord injury (pp. 134-168). New York: Oxford University Press.

Brown, J. M., Vivio, N., & Sheean, G. L. (2012). The clinical practice of reconstructive neurosurgery. Clinical neurology and neurosurgery114(5), 506-514.

Brucker, B. S., & Buylaeva, N. V. (1996). Biofeedback effect on electromyography responses in patients with spinal cord injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation77(2), 133-137.

Bryden, A. M., Memberg, W. D., & Crago, P. E. (2000). Electrically stimulated elbow extension in persons with C5/C6 tetraplegia: a functional and physiological evaluation. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation81(1), 80-88.

Bryden, A. M., Kilgore, K. L., Lind, B. B., & David, T. Y. (2004). Triceps denervation as a predictor of elbow flexion contractures in C5 and C6 tetraplegia. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation85(11), 1880-1885.

Bryden, A., Sinnott, A., & Mulcahey, M. J. (2005). Innovative strategies for improving upper extremity function in tetraplegia and considerations in measuring functional outcomes. Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation10(4), 75-93.

Buchli, A. D., & Schwab, M. E. (2005). Inhibition of Nogo: a key strategy to increase regeneration, plasticity and functional recovery of the lesioned central nervous system. Annals of medicine37(8), 556-567.

Bunday, K. L., Tazoe, T., Rothwell, J. C., & Perez, M. A. (2014). Subcortical control of precision grip after human spinal cord injury. Journal of Neuroscience34(21), 7341-7350.

Bunday, K. L., Urbin, M. A., & Perez, M. A. (2018). Potentiating paired corticospinal-motoneuronal plasticity after spinal cord injury. Brain stimulation11(5), 1083-1092.

Burns, A. S., & Meythaler, J. M. (2001). Intrathecal baclofen in tetraplegia of spinal origin: efficacy for upper extremity hypertonia. Spinal Cord39(8), 413.

Cameron, T., Breton, J. G., Needham-Shropshire, B., & Klose, K. J. (1998). An upper body exercise system incorporating resistive exercise and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMS). The journal of spinal cord medicine21(1), 1-6.

Cameron, T., Loeb, G. E., Peck, R. A., Schulman, J. H., Strojnik, P., & Troyk, P. R. (1997). Micromodular implants to provide electrical stimulation of paralyzed muscles and limbs. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering44(9), 781-790.

Cappello, L., Meyer, J. T., Galloway, K. C., Peisner, J. D., Granberry, R., Wagner, D. A., … & Walsh, C. J. (2018). Assisting hand function after spinal cord injury with a fabric-based soft robotic glove. Journal of neuroengineering and rehabilitation15(1), 59.

Carlson, M. J., & Krahn, G. (2006). Use of complementary and alternative medicine practitioners by people with physical disabilities: estimates from a National US Survey. Disability and rehabilitation28(8), 505-513.

Carroll, S., Coope, C., Brown, D., Sormann, G., Flood, S., & Denison, M. (2000). Australian Experience with the Freehand System® for Restoring Graspin Quadriplegia. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Surgery70(8), 563-568.

Cheung, V. C., d’Avella, A., Tresch, M. C., & Bizzi, E. (2005). Central and sensory contributions to the activation and organization of muscle synergies during natural motor behaviors. Journal of Neuroscience25(27), 6419-6434.

Coignard, P., Departe, J. P., Neris, O. R., Baillet, A., Bar, A., Drean, D., … & Le Guiet, J. L. (2013). ANSO study: evaluation in an indoor environment of a mobile assistance robotic grasping arm. Annals of physical and rehabilitation medicine56(9-10), 621-633.

Collinger, J. L., Boninger, M. L., Bruns, T. M., Curley, K., Wang, W., & Weber, D. J. (2013). Functional priorities, assistive technology, and brain-computer interfaces after spinal cord injury. Journal of rehabilitation research and development50(2), 145.

Coster, S., & Norman, I. (2009). Cochrane reviews of educational and self-management interventions to guide nursing practice: A review. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 46(4), 508–528.

Côté, M. P., Azzam, G. A., Lemay, M. A., Zhukareva, V., & Houlé, J. D. (2011). Activity-dependent increase in neurotrophic factors is associated with an enhanced modulation of spinal reflexes after spinal cord injury. Journal of neurotrauma28(2), 299-309.

Cortes, M., Elder, J., Rykman, A., Murray, L., Avedissian, M., Stampas, A., … & Edwards, D. J. (2013). Improved motor performance in chronic spinal cord injury following upper-limb robotic training. NeuroRehabilitation33(1), 57-65.

Cortes, M., Medeiros, A. H., Gandhi, A., Lee, P., Krebs, H. I., Thickbroom, G., & Edwards, D. (2017). Improved grasp function with transcranial direct current stimulation in chronic spinal cord injury. NeuroRehabilitation41(1), 51-59.

Coulet, B., Allieu, Y., & Chammas, M. (2002). Injured metamere and functional surgery of the tetraplegic upper limb. Hand clinics18(3), 399-412.

Coulet, B., Waitzenegger, T., Teissier, J., Lazerges, C., Chammas, M., Fattal, C., & Cambon-Binder, A. (2018). Arthrodesis Versus Carpometacarpal Preservation in Key-Grip Procedures in Tetraplegic Patients: A Comparative Study of 40 Cases. The Journal of hand surgery43(5), 483-e1.

Courtine, G., & Sofroniew, M. V. (2019). Spinal cord repair: advances in biology and technology. Nature medicine, 1.

Colyer, R. A., & Kappelman, B. O. N. N. I. E. (1981). Flexor pollicis longus tenodesis in tetraplegia at the sixth cervical level. A prospective evaluation of functional gain. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume63(3), 376-379.

Crane, D. A., Hoffman, J. M., & Reyes, M. R. (2017). Benefits of an exercise wellness program after spinal cord injury. The journal of spinal cord medicine40(2), 154-158.

Curt, A., Van Hedel, H. J., Klaus, D., Dietz, V., & EM-SCI study group. (2008). Recovery from a spinal cord injury: significance of compensation, neural plasticity, and repair. Journal of neurotrauma25(6), 677-685.

Curtin, M. (1994). Development of a tetraplegic hand assessment and splinting protocol. Spinal Cord32(3), 159.

Curtin, C. M., Gater, D. R., & Chung, K. C. (2005). Upper extremity reconstruction in the tetraplegic population, a national epidemiologic study. The Journal of hand surgery30(1), 94-99.

Curtis, K. A., Tyner, T. M., Zachary, L., Lentell, G., Brink, D., Didyk, T., … & Lesina, S. (1999). Effect of a standard exercise protocol on shoulder pain in long-term wheelchair users. Spinal cord37(6), 421.

Dalyan, M., Sherman, A., & Cardenas, D. D. (1998). Factors associated with contractures in acute spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord36(6), 405.

d’Avella, A., Saltiel, P., & Bizzi, E. (2003). Combinations of muscle synergies in the construction of a natural motor behavior. Nature neuroscience6(3), 300.

Deakin, T. A., McShane, C. E., Cade, J. E., & Williams, R. (2005). Group based training for self‐management strategies in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane database of systematic reviews, (2).

Dias, P., Silva, R., Amorim, P., Laíns, J., Roque, E., Serôdio, I., … & Potel, M. (2019). Using Virtual Reality to Increase Motivation in Poststroke Rehabilitation. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 39(1), 64-70.

Dietz, V., & Fouad, K. (2013). Restoration of sensorimotor functions after spinal cord injury. Brain137(3), 654-667.

Dimbwadyo-Terrer, I., de los Reyes-Guzmán, A., Bernal-Sahún, A., López-Monteagudo, P., Trincado-Alonso, F., Polonio-López, B., & Gil-Agudo, Á. (2013). Virtual reality system toyra: a new tool to assess and treatment for upper limb motor impairment in patients with spinal cord injury. In Converging Clinical and Engineering Research on Neurorehabilitation (pp. 853-858). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Dimbwadyo-Terrer, I., Gil-Agudo, A., Segura-Fragoso, A., de los Reyes-Guzmán, A., Trincado-Alonso, F., Piazza, S., & Polonio-López, B. (2016). Effectiveness of the virtual reality system Toyra on upper limb function in people with tetraplegia: a pilot randomized clinical trial. BioMed research international2016.

Dimbwadyo-Terrer, I., Trincado-Alonso, F., de los Reyes-Guzmán, A., Aznar, M. A., Alcubilla, C., Pérez-Nombela, S., … & Gil-Agudo, A. (2016). Upper limb rehabilitation after spinal cord injury: a treatment based on a data glove and an immersive virtual reality environment. Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology11(6), 462-467.

Dimbwadyo-Terrer, I., Trincado-Alonso, F., De los Reyes-Guzmán, A., López-Monteagudo, P., Polonio-López, B., & Gil-Agudo, A. (2016). Activities of daily living assessment in spinal cord injury using the virtual reality system Toyra®: functional and kinematic correlations. Virtual Reality20(1), 17-26.

DiPasquale-Lehnerz, P. (1994). Orthotic intervention for development of hand function with C-6 quadriplegia. American Journal of Occupational Therapy48(2), 138-144.

Di Rienzo, F., Guillot, A., Mateo, S., Daligault, S., Delpuech, C., Rode, G., & Collet, C. (2014). Neuroplasticity of prehensile neural networks after quadriplegia. Neuroscience274, 82-92.

Di Rienzo, F., Guillot, A., Mateo, S., Daligault, S., Delpuech, C., Rode, G., & Collet, C. (2015). Neuroplasticity of imagined wrist actions after spinal cord injury: a pilot study. Experimental brain research233(1), 291-302.

Ditunno Jr, J. F. (1999). Predicting recovery after spinal cord injury: a rehabilitation imperative. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation80(4), 361-364.

Drolet, M., Noreau, L., Vachon, J., & Moffet, H. (1999). Muscle strength changes as measured by dynamometry following functional rehabilitation in individuals with spinal cord injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation80(7), 791-800.

Dunkerley, A. L., Ashburn, A., & Stack, E. L. (2000). Deltoid triceps transfer and functional independence of people with tetraplegia. Spinal Cord38(7), 435.

Dunn, J. A., Hay-Smith, E. J. C., Whitehead, L. C., & Keeling, S. (2012). Issues influencing the decision to have upper limb surgery for people with tetraplegia. Spinal Cord50(11), 844.

Dunn, J. A., Rothwell, A. G., Mohammed, K. D., & Sinnott, K. A. (2014). The effects of aging on upper limb tendon transfers in patients with tetraplegia. The Journal of hand surgery39(2), 317-323.

Dunn, J. A., Mohammed, K. D., Beadel, G. P., Rothwell, A. G., & Simcock, J. W. (2017). A comparative outcome study of hamstring versus tibialis anterior and synthetic grafts for deltoid to triceps transfers. The Journal of hand surgery42(10), 833-e1.

Dyson-Hudson, T. A., Shiflett, S. C., Kirshblum, S. C., Bowen, J. E., & Druin, E. L. (2001). Acupuncture and Trager psychophysical integration in the treatment of wheelchair user’s shoulder pain in individuals with spinal cord injury. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation82(8), 1038-1046.

Ejeskär, A., & Dahllöf, A. (1988). Results of reconstructive surgery in the upper limb of tetraplegic patients. Spinal Cord26(3), 204.

Ertelt, D., Small, S., Solodkin, A., Dettmers, C., McNamara, A., Binkofski, F., & Buccino, G. (2007). Action observation has a positive impact on rehabilitation of motor deficits after stroke. Neuroimage, 36, T164-T173.

Evans, N., Wingo, B., Sasso, E., Hicks, A., Gorgey, A. S., & Harness, E. (2015). Exercise recommendations and considerations for persons with spinal cord injury. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation96(9), 1749-1750.

Failla, J. M., Peimer, C. A., & Sherwin, F. S. (1990). Brachioradialis transfer for digital palsy. Journal of Hand Surgery15(3), 312-316.

Fan, Q., Cavus, O., Xiong, L., & Xia, Y. (2018). Spinal Cord Injury: How Could Acupuncture Help?. Journal of acupuncture and meridian studies11(4), 124-132.

Flinn, N.A., Radomski, M. V., & Latham, C. A. T. (Eds.). (2008). Occupational therapy for physical dysfunction. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Foldes, S. T., Weber, D. J., & Collinger, J. L. (2015). MEG-based neurofeedback for hand rehabilitation. Journal of neuroengineering and rehabilitation12(1), 85.

Forner-Cordero, I., Mudarra-Garcia, J., Forner-Valero, J. V., & Vilar-De-La-Pena, R. (2003). The role of upper limb surgery in tetraplegia. Spinal Cord41(2), 90.

Fox, P. M., Suarez, P., Hentz, V. R., & Curtin, C. M. (2015a). Access to surgical upper extremity care for people with tetraplegia: an international perspective. Spinal cord53(4), 302.

Fox, I. K., Davidge, K. M., Novak, C. B., Hoben, G., Kahn, L. C., Juknis, N., … & Mackinnon, S. E. (2015b). Nerve transfers to restore upper extremity function in cervical spinal cord injury: update and preliminary outcomes. Plastic and reconstructive surgery136(4), 780-792.

Fox, I. K., Davidge, K. M., Novak, C. B., Hoben, G., Kahn, L. C., Juknis, N., … & Mackinnon, S. E. (2015c). Use of peripheral nerve transfers in tetraplegia: Evaluation of feasibility and morbidity. Hand10(1), 60-67.

Fox, I. K., Novak, C. B., Krauss, E. M., Hoben, G. M., Zaidman, C. M., Ruvinskaya, R., … & Mackinnon, S. E. (2018). The use of nerve transfers to restore upper extremity function in cervical spinal cord injury. PM&R10(11), 1173-1184.

Freehafer, A. A., Kelly, C. M., & Peckham, P. H. (1984). Tendon transfer for the restoration of upper limb function after a cervical spinal cord injury. The Journal of hand surgery9(6), 887-893.

Freehafer, A. A. (1998). Tendon transfers in tetraplegic patients: the Cleveland experience. Spinal Cord36(5), 315.   Friedenberg, Z. B. (1954). Transposition of the biceps brachii for triceps weakness. JBJS36(3), 656-658.

Fridén, J., Gohritz, A., Turcsányi, I., & Ejeskär, A. (2012). Restoration of active palmar abduction of the thumb in tetraplegia by tendon transfer of the extensor digiti minimi to abductor pollicis brevis. Journal of Hand Surgery (European Volume)37(7), 665-672.

Fridén, J., Reinholdt, C., Gohritz, A., Peace, W. J., Ward, S. R., & Lieber, R. L. (2012). Simultaneous powering of forearm pronation and key pinch in tetraplegia using a single muscle-tendon unit. Journal of Hand Surgery (European Volume)37(4), 323-328.

Fridén, J., Reinholdt, C., Wangdell, J., & Gohritz, A. (2014). Upper extremity reconstruction in non-traumatic spinal cord injuries: an under-recognized opportunity. Journal of rehabilitation medicine46(1), 33-38.

Frullo, J. M., Elinger, J., Pehlivan, A. U., Fitle, K., Nedley, K., Francisco, G. E., … & O’Malley, M. K. (2017). Effects of assist-as-needed upper extremity robotic therapy after incomplete spinal cord injury: a parallel-group controlled trial. Frontiers in neurorobotics11, 26.

Gad, P., Lee, S., Terrafranca, N., Zhong, H., Turner, A., Gerasimenko, Y., & Edgerton, V. R. (2018). Non-invasive activation of cervical spinal networks after severe paralysis. Journal of neurotrauma35(18), 2145-2158.

Fridén, J., Reinholdt, C., Wangdell, J., & Gohritz, A. (2014). Upper extremity reconstruction in non-traumatic spinal cord injuries: an under-recognized opportunity. Journal of rehabilitation medicine46(1), 33-38.

Frullo, J. M., Elinger, J., Pehlivan, A. U., Fitle, K., Nedley, K., Francisco, G. E., … & O’Malley, M. K. (2017). Effects of assist-as-needed upper extremity robotic therapy after incomplete spinal cord injury: a parallel-group controlled trial. Frontiers in neurorobotics11, 26.

Gad, P., Lee, S., Terrafranca, N., Zhong, H., Turner, A., Gerasimenko, Y., & Edgerton, V. R. (2018). Non-invasive activation of cervical spinal networks after severe paralysis. Journal of neurotrauma35(18), 2145-2158.

Gant, K. L., Nagle, K. G., Cowan, R. E., Field-Fote, E. C., Nash, M. S., Kressler, J., … & Anderson, K. D. (2018). Body system effects of a multi-modal training program targeting chronic, motor complete thoracic spinal cord injury. Journal of neurotrauma35(3), 411-423.

Gansel, J. O. H. N., Waters, R., & Gellman, H. (1990). Transfer of the pronator teres tendon to the tendons of the flexor digitorum profundus in tetraplegia. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume72(3), 427-432.

Gibson, P. G., Powell, H., Wilson, A., Abramson, M. J., Haywood, P., Bauman, A., … Roberts, J. J. L. (2009). Self-management education and regular practitioner review for adults with asthma. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

Gomes-Osman, J., & Field-Fote, E. C. (2015). Cortical vs. afferent stimulation as an adjunct to functional task practice training: a randomized, comparative pilot study in people with cervical spinal cord injury. Clinical rehabilitation29(8), 771-782.

Gomes-Osman, J., & Field-Fote, E. C. (2013). Bihemispheric anodal corticomotor stimulation using transcranial direct current stimulation improves bimanual typing task performance. Journal of motor behavior45(4), 361-367.

Gomes-Osman, J., & Field-Fote, E. C. (2015). Improvements in hand function in adults with chronic tetraplegia following a multi-day 10Hz rTMS intervention combined with repetitive task practice. Journal of neurologic physical therapy: JNPT39(1), 23.

Gomes-Osman, J., Tibbett, J. A., Poe, B. P., & Field-Fote, E. C. (2017). Priming for improved hand strength in persons with chronic tetraplegia: a comparison of priming-augmented functional task practice, priming alone, and conventional exercise training. Frontiers in neurology7, 242.

Gómez-Pinilla, F., Ying, Z., Roy, R. R., Molteni, R., & Edgerton, V. R. (2002). Voluntary exercise induces a BDNF-mediated mechanism that promotes neuroplasticity. Journal of neurophysiology88(5), 2187-2195.

Gregersen, H., Lybæk, M., Lauge Johannesen, I., Leicht, P., Nissen, U. V., & Biering-Sørensen, F. (2015). Satisfaction with upper extremity surgery in individuals with tetraplegia. The journal of spinal cord medicine38(2), 161-169.

Grover, J., Gellman, H., & Waters, R. L. (1996). The effect of a flexion contracture of the elbow on the ability to transfer in patients who have quadriplegia at the sixth cervical level. JBJS78(9), 1397-1400.

Forner-Cordero, I., Mudarra-Garcia, J., Forner-Valero, J. V., & Vilar-De-La-Pena, R. (2003). The role of upper limb surgery in tetraplegia. Spinal Cord41(2), 90.

Haisma, J. A., Bussmann, J. B., Stam, H. J., Sluis, T. A., Bergen, M. P., Dallmeijer, A. J., … & van der Woude, L. H. (2006). Changes in physical capacity during and after inpatient rehabilitation in subjects with a spinal cord injury. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation87(6), 741-748.

Hanson, R. W., & Franklin, M. R. (1976). Sexual loss in relation to other functional losses for spinal cord injured males. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation57(6), 291-293.

Harvey, L. (1996). Principles of conservative management for a non-orthotic tenodesis grip in tetraplegics. Journal of Hand Therapy9(3), 238-242.

Harvey, L., de Jong, I., Goehl, G., & Marwedel, S. (2006). Twelve weeks of nightly stretch does not reduce thumb web-space contractures in people with a neurological condition: a randomised controlled trial. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy52(4), 251-258.

Harvey, L. A., Dunlop, S. A., Churilov, L., Galea, M. P., Hands, S. C. I. P. A. S., & Collaborators, O. T. (2016). Early intensive hand rehabilitation is not more effective than usual care plus one-to-one hand therapy in people with sub-acute spinal cord injury (‘Hands On’): a randomised trial. Journal of physiotherapy62(2), 88-95.

Hawasli, A. H., Chang, J., Reynolds, M. R., & Ray, W. Z. (2015). Transfer of the brachialis to the anterior interosseous nerve as a treatment strategy for cervical spinal cord injury. Global spine journal5(02), 110-117.

Hentz, V. R., Brown, M., & Keoshian, L. A. (1983). Upper limb reconstruction in quadriplegia: functional assessment and proposed treatment modifications. The Journal of hand surgery8(2), 119-131.

Hentz, V. R. (2002). Surgical strategy: matching the patient with the procedure. Hand clinics18(3), 503-518.

Hicks, A. L., Martin, K. A., Ditor, D. S., Latimer, A. E., Craven, C., Bugaresti, J., & McCartney, N. (2003). Long-term exercise training in persons with spinal cord injury: effects on strength, arm ergometry performance and psychological well-being. Spinal cord41(1), 34.

Hincapie, J. G., Blana, D., Chadwick, E. K., & Kirsch, R. F. (2008). Musculoskeletal model-guided, customizable selection of shoulder and elbow muscles for a C5 SCI neuroprosthesis. IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering16(3), 255-263.

Hobby J, Taylor PN, Esnouf J. Restoration of tetraplegic hand function by use of the neurocontrol Freehand System. J Hand Surg Br 2001;26B:459-64.

Hodkin, E. F., Lei, Y., Humby, J., Glover, I. S., Choudhury, S., Kumar, H., … & Jackson, A. (2018). Automated FES for upper limb rehabilitation following stroke and spinal cord injury. IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering26(5), 1067-1074.

Hoffman, H., Sierro, T., Niu, T., Sarino, M. E., Sarrafzadeh, M., McArthur, D., … & Lu, D. C. (2017). Rehabilitation of hand function after spinal cord injury using a novel handgrip device: a pilot study. Journal of neuroengineering and rehabilitation14(1), 22.

Hoffman, L., & Field-Fote, E. (2013). Effects of practice combined with somatosensory or motor stimulation on hand function in persons with spinal cord injury. Topics in spinal cord injury rehabilitation19(4), 288-299.

Hoshimiya, N. (1989). A master-slave type multichannel functional electrical stimulation (FES) system for the control of the paralyzed upper extremities. Automedia11, 209-220.

Houle, J. D., Morris, K., Skinner, R. D., Garcia‐Rill, E., & Peterson, C. A. (1999). Effects of fetal spinal cord tissue transplants and cycling exercise on the soleus muscle in spinalized rats. Muscle & Nerve: Official Journal of the American Association of Electrodiagnostic Medicine22(7), 846-856.

House, J. H., Comadoll, J., & Dahl, A. L. (1992). One-stage key pinch and release with thumb carpal-metacarpal fusion in tetraplegia. The Journal of hand surgery17(3), 530-538.

Howlett, O. A., Lannin, N. A., Ada, L., & McKinstry, C. (2015). Functional electrical stimulation improves activity after stroke: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation96(5), 934-943.

Hummel, J. M., Snoek, G. J., van Til, J. A., van Rossum, W., & IJzerman, M. J. (2005). A multicriteria decision analysis of augmentative treatment of upper limbs in persons with tetraplegia. Journal of rehabilitation research and development42(5), 635.

Iwahashi, K., Hayashi, T., Watanabe, R., Nishimura, A., Ueta, T., Maeda, T., & Shiba, K. (2017). Effects of orthotic therapeutic electrical stimulation in the treatment of patients with paresis associated with acute cervical spinal cord injury: A randomized control trial. Spinal cord55(12), 1066.

James, N. D., McMahon, S. B., Field-Fote, E. C., & Bradbury, E. J. (2018). Neuromodulation in the restoration of function after spinal cord injury. The Lancet Neurology17(10), 905-917.

Jarus, T. (1994). Motor learning and occupational therapy: The organization of practice. American Journal of Occupational Therapy48(9), 810-816.

Johnstone, B. R., Jordan, C. J., & Buntine, J. A. (1988). A review of surgical rehabilitation of the upper limb in quadriplegia. Spinal Cord26(5), 317.

Keith, M. W., & Lacey, S. H. (1991). Surgical rehabilitation of the tetraplegic upper extremity. Journal of Neurologic Rehabilitation5(1-2), 75-87.

Keith, M. W., & Peljovich, A. (2012). Surgical treatments to restore function control in spinal cord injury. In Handbook of clinical neurology (Vol. 109, pp. 167-179). Elsevier.

Kelly, C. M., Freehafer, A. A., Peckham, P. H., & Stroh, K. (1985). Postoperative results of opponensplasty and flexor tendon transfer in patients with spinal cord injuries. The Journal of hand surgery10(6), 890-894.

Kilduski, N. C., & Rice, M. S. (2003). Qualitative and quantitative knowledge of results: effects on motor learning. American Journal of Occupational Therapy57(3), 329-336.

Kilgore, K. L., Peckham, P. H., Keith, M. W., Thrope, G. B., Wuolle, K. S., Bryden, A. M., & Hart, R. L. (1997). An implanted upper-extremity neuroprosthesis. Follow-up of five patients. JBJS79(4), 533-41.

Kilgore, K. L., Hoyen, H. A., Bryden, A. M., Hart, R. L., Keith, M. W., & Peckham, P. H. (2008). An implanted upper-extremity neuroprosthesis using myoelectric control. The Journal of hand surgery33(4), 539-550.

Kilgore, K. L., Bryden, A., Keith, M. W., Hoyen, H. A., Hart, R. L., Nemunaitis, G. A., & Peckham, P. H. (2018). Evolution of neuroprosthetic approaches to restoration of upper extremity function in spinal cord injury. Topics in spinal cord injury rehabilitation24(3), 252-264.

Kim, B., In, H., Lee, D. Y., & Cho, K. J. (2017). Development and assessment of a hand assist device: GRIPIT. Journal of neuroengineering and rehabilitation14(1), 15.

Kim, E., & Kim, K. (2015). Effect of purposeful action observation on upper extremity function in stroke patients. Journal of physical therapy science27(9), 2867-2869.

Kimberley, T. J., Lewis, S. M., Auerbach, E. J., Dorsey, L. L., Lojovich, J. M., & Carey, J. R. (2004). Electrical stimulation driving functional improvements and cortical changes in subjects with stroke. Experimental Brain Research154(4), 450-460.

Kirshblum, S., Millis, S., McKinley, W., & Tulsky, D. (2004). Late neurologic recovery after traumatic spinal cord injury. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation85(11), 1811-1817.

Kirshblum, S., & Lin, V. W. (Eds.). (2018). Spinal cord medicine. Springer Publishing Company.

Klamroth-Marganska, V., Blanco, J., Campen, K., Curt, A., Dietz, V., Ettlin, T., … & Luft, A. (2014). Three-dimensional, task-specific robot therapy of the arm after stroke: a multicentre, parallel-group randomised trial. The Lancet Neurology, 13(2), 159-166.

Klose, K. J., Needham, B. M., Schmidt, D., Broton, J. G., & Green, B. A. (1993). An assessment of the contribution of electromyographic biofeedback as an adjunct therapy in the physical training of spinal cord injured persons. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation74(5), 453-456.

Knutson, J. S., Makowski, N. S., Kilgore, K. L., & Chae, J. (2019). Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Applications. In Atlas of Orthoses and Assistive Devices (pp. 432-439). Content Repository Only!.

Kohlmeyer, K. M., Hill, J. P., Yarkony, G. M., & Jaeger, R. J. (1996). Electrical stimulation and biofeedback effect on recovery of tenodesis grasp: a controlled study. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation77(7), 702-706.

Kozin, S.H. (2002). Tetraplegia. J Hand Surg Am, 2(3):141-52.

Kozin, S. H., D’Addesi, L., Chafetz, R. S., Ashworth, S., & Mulcahey, M. J. (2010). Biceps-to-triceps transfer for elbow extension in persons with tetraplegia. The Journal of hand surgery35(6), 968-975.

Krajnik, S. R., & Bridle, M. J. (1992). Hand splinting in quadriplegia: current practice. American Journal of Occupational Therapy46(2), 149-156.

Krucoff, M. O., Rahimpour, S., Slutzky, M. W., Edgerton, V. R., & Turner, D. A. (2016). Enhancing nervous system recovery through neurobiologics, neural interface training, and neurorehabilitation. Frontiers in neuroscience10, 584.

Kuk, E. J., Kim, J. M., Oh, D. W., & Hwang, H. J. (2016). Effects of action observation therapy on hand dexterity and EEG-based cortical activation patterns in patients with post-stroke hemiparesis. Topics in stroke rehabilitation, 23(5), 318-325.

Kuz, J. E., Van Heest, A. E., & House, J. H. (1999). Biceps-to-triceps transfer in tetraplegic patients: report of the medial routing technique and follow-up of three cases. The Journal of hand surgery24(1), 161-172.

Lacey, S. H., Wilber, R. G., Peckham, P. H., & Freehafer, A. A. (1986). The posterior deltoid to triceps transfer: a clinical and biomechanical assessment. The Journal of hand surgery11(4), 542-547.

Lamb, D. W., & Chan, K. M. (1983). Surgical reconstruction of the upper limb in traumatic tetraplegia. A review of 41 patients. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. British volume65(3), 291-298.

Lance, J. W. (1980). Pathophysiology of spasticity and clinical experience with baclofen. Spasticity: disordered motor control, 185-204.

Lee, M. H. M., Liao, S. J., Kottke, F. J., & Lehmann, J. F. (1990). Acupuncture in physiatry. Krusens Handbook of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, ed4, 402-32.

Lo, A. C., Guarino, P. D., Richards, L. G., Haselkorn, J. K., Wittenberg, G. F., Federman, D. G., … & Bever Jr, C. T. (2010). Robot-assisted therapy for long-term upper-limb impairment after stroke. New England Journal of Medicine, 362(19), 1772-1783.

Lo, I. K. Y., Turner, R., Connolly, S., Delaney, G., & Roth, J. H. (1998). The outcome of tendon transfers for C6-spared quadriplegics. Journal of Hand Surgery23(2), 156-161.

Lohse, K., Shirzad, N., Verster, A., Hodges, N., & Van der Loos, H. M. (2013). Video games and rehabilitation: using design principles to enhance engagement in physical therapy. Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy37(4), 166-175.

Mangold, S., Keller, T., Curt, A., & Dietz, V. (2005). Transcutaneous functional electrical stimulation for grasping in subjects with cervical spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord43(1), 1.

Marino, R. J., Ditunno Jr, J. F., Donovan, W. H., & Maynard Jr, F. (1999). Neurologic recovery after traumatic spinal cord injury: data from the Model Spinal Cord Injury Systems. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation80(11), 1391-1396.

Marino, R. J., Burns, S., Graves, D. E., Leiby, B. E., Kirshblum, S., & Lammertse, D. P. (2011). Upper-and lower-extremity motor recovery after traumatic cervical spinal cord injury: an update from the national spinal cord injury database. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation92(3), 369-375.

Magill, R.A. (2001) Motor learning: concepts and applications. 6th Edn. New York, NY: McGrawHill.

McCarthy, C. K., House, J. H., Van Heest, A., Kawiecki, J. A., Dahl, A., & Hanson, D. (1997). Intrinsic balancing in reconstruction of the tetraplegic hand. The Journal of hand surgery22(4), 596-604.

McSweeney, T. (1969) Discussion to Freehafer AA. Care of the hand in cervical spinal cord injuries. Paraplegia, 7:118-30.

Medina, J., Marcos-García, A., Jiménez, I., Muratore, G., & Méndez-Suárez, J. L. (2017). Biceps to Triceps Transfer in Tetraplegic Patients: Our Experience and Review of the Literature. HAND12(1), 85-90.

Medina, J., Marcos-García, A., Jiménez, I., Muratore, G., & Méndez-Suárez, J. L. (2017). Biceps to Triceps Transfer in Tetraplegic Patients: Our Experience and Review of the Literature. HAND12(1), 85-90.

Meiners, T., Abel, R., Lindel, K., & Mesecke, U. (2002). Improvements in activities of daily living following functional hand surgery for treatment of lesions to the cervical spinal cord: self-assessment by patients. Spinal Cord40(11), 574.

Memberg, W. D., Crago, P. E., & Keith, M. W. (2003). Restoration of elbow extension via functional electrical stimulation in individuals with tetraplegia. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development40(6).

Meythaler, J. M., Guin-Renfroe, S., Grabb, P., & Hadley, M. N. (1999). Long-term continuously infused intrathecal baclofen for spastic-dystonic hypertonia in traumatic brain injury: 1-year experience. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation80(1), 13-19.

Midha, R. (2004). Nerve transfers for severe brachial plexus injuries: a review. Neurosurgical focus16(5), 1-10.

Moberg, E. R. I. K. (1975). Surgical treatment for absent single-hand grip and elbow extension in quadriplegia. Principles and preliminary experience. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume57(2), 196-206.

Mohammed, K. D., Rothwell, A. G., Sinclair, S. W., Willems, S. M., & Bean, A. R. (1992). Upper-limb surgery for tetraplegia. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. British volume74(6), 873-879.

Mohindra, M., Gogna, P., Sangwan, S. S., Gaba, S., & Kundu, Z. S. (2017). The scope of upper limb surgery for tetraplegics: Role of tendon transfers and Universal Cuff. Acta orthopaedica et traumatologica turcica51(5), 367-371.

Mortimer, J. (1981) Motor Prostheses. Handbook of Physiology-The Nervous System II, American Physiological Society, 155-187.

Mulcahey, M. J., Lutz, C., Kozin, S. H., & Betz, R. R. (2003). Prospective evaluation of biceps to triceps and deltoid to triceps for elbow extension in tetraplegia. The Journal of hand surgery28(6), 964-971.

Mulcahey, M. J., Betz, R. R., Kozin, S. H., Smith, B. T., Hutchinson, D., & Lutz, C. (2004). Implantation of the Freehand System® during initial rehabilitation using minimally invasive techniques. Spinal Cord42(3), 146.

Mulcahey, M. J., Betz, R. R., Smith, B. T., Weiss, A. A., & Davis, S. E. (1997). Implanted functional electrical stimulation hand system in adolescents with spinal injuries: an evaluation. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation78(6), 597-607.

Murphy, C. P., & Chuinard, R. G. (1988). Management of the upper extremity in traumatic tetraplegia. Hand Clinics4(2), 201-209.

Nasser, M. E. T., Reda, M. A. E. H., Awad, M. R., Amin, I. R., & Assem, S. A. (2014). Effect of massed practice and somatosensory stimulation on the upper extremity function in patients with incomplete cervical spinal cord injury. Alexandria Journal of Medicine50(2), 189-196.

Needham-Shropshire, B., Broton, J., Cameron, T., & Klose, J. (1997). Improved motor function in tetraplegics following neuromuscular stimulation-assisted arm ergometry. The journal of spinal cord medicine20(1), 49-55.

Newell, K.M. (1991) Motor skill acquisition. Annu Rev Psychol, 42:213-37

Nightingale, T. E., Rouse, P. C., Walhin, J. P., Thompson, D., & Bilzon, J. L. (2018). Home-Based Exercise Enhances Health-Related Quality of Life in Persons With Spinal Cord Injury: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation99(10), 1998-2006.

Onose, G., Grozea, C., Anghelescu, A., Daia, C., Sinescu, C. J., Ciurea, A. V., … & Popescu, C. (2012). On the feasibility of using motor imagery EEG-based brain–computer interface in chronic tetraplegics for assistive robotic arm control: a clinical test and long-term post-trial follow-up. Spinal cord50(8), 599.

Osuagwu, B. C., Wallace, L., Fraser, M., & Vuckovic, A. (2016). Rehabilitation of hand in subacute tetraplegic patients based on brain computer interface and functional electrical stimulation: a randomised pilot study. Journal of neural engineering13(6), 065002.

Overduin, S. A., d’Avella, A., Roh, J., & Bizzi, E. (2008). Modulation of muscle synergy recruitment in primate grasping. Journal of Neuroscience28(4), 880-892.

Page, S. J., Szaflarski, J. P., Eliassen, J. C., Pan, H., & Cramer, S. C. (2009). Cortical plasticity following motor skill learning during mental practice in stroke. Neurorehabilitation and neural repair23(4), 382-388.

Pandyan, A., Gregoric, M., Barnes, M. P., Wood, D., Wijck, F. V., Burridge, J., … & Johnson, G. R. (2005). Spasticity: clinical perceptions, neurological realities and meaningful measurement. Disability and rehabilitation27(1-2), 2-6.

Pannek, J., Pannek-Rademacher, S., & Wöllner, J. (2015). Use of complementary and alternative medicine in persons with spinal cord injury in Switzerland: a survey study. Spinal cord53(7), 569.

Paralyzed Veterans of America Consortium for Spinal Cord Medicine. (1999). Outcomes following traumatic spinal cord injury: clinical practice guidelines for health care professionals. The journal of spinal cord medicine.

Paralyzed Veterans of America Consortium for Spinal Cord Medicine. (2005). Preservation of upper limb function following spinal cord injury: a clinical practice guideline for health-care professionals. The journal of spinal cord medicine28(5), 434.

Paternostro-Sluga, T., Stieger, M. (2004) Hand splints in rehabilitation. Crit Rev Phys Rehabil Med, 16:233-256.

Patil, S., Raza, W. A., Jamil, F., Caley, R., & O’Connor, R. J. (2015). Functional electrical stimulation for the upper limb in tetraplegic spinal cord injury: a systematic review. Journal of medical engineering & technology39(7), 419-423.

Peckham, P. H., Keith, M. W., Kilgore, K. L., Grill, J. H., Wuolle, K. S., Thrope, G. B., … & Hentz, V. R. (2001). Efficacy of an implanted neuroprosthesis for restoring hand grasp in tetraplegia: a multicenter study. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation82(10), 1380-1388.

Pedrocchi, A., Ferrante, S., Ambrosini, E., Gandolla, M., Casellato, C., Schauer, T., … & Reichenfelser, W. (2013). MUNDUS project: MUltimodal Neuroprosthesis for daily Upper limb Support. Journal of neuroengineering and rehabilitation10(1), 66.

Peng, T. H., Zhu, J. D., Chen, C. C., Tai, R. Y., Lee, C. Y., & Hsieh, Y. W. (2019). Action observation therapy for improving arm function, walking ability, and daily activity performance after stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical rehabilitation, 0269215519839108.

Peterchev, A. V., Wagner, T. A., Miranda, P. C., Nitsche, M. A., Paulus, W., Lisanby, S. H., … & Bikson, M. (2012). Fundamentals of transcranial electric and magnetic stimulation dose: definition, selection, and reporting practices. Brain stimulation, 5(4), 435-453.

Peterson, C. L., Rogers, L. M., Bednar, M. S., Bryden, A. M., Keith, M. W., Perreault, E. J., & Murray, W. M. (2017). Posture-Dependent Corticomotor Excitability Differs Between the Transferred Biceps in Individuals With Tetraplegia and the Biceps of Nonimpaired Individuals. Neurorehabilitation and neural repair31(4), 354-363.

Pfurtscheller, G., Linortner, P., Winkler, R., Korisek, G., & Müller-Putz, G. (2009). Discrimination of motor imagery-induced EEG patterns in patients with complete spinal cord injury. Computational intelligence and neuroscience2009.

Politis, M.J., Korchinski, M.A. (1990) Beneficial effects of acupuncture treatment following experimental spinal cord injury: a behavioral morphological and biochemical study. Acupunct Electrother Res, 15:37-49.

Popović, D., Stojanović, A., Pjanović, A., Radosavljević, S., Popović, M., Jović, S., & Vulović, D. (1999). Clinical evaluation of the bionic glove. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation80(3), 299-304.

Popovic, M. R., Keller, T., Papas, I. P. I., Dietz, V., & Morari, M. (2001). Surface-stimulation technology for grasping and walking neuroprostheses. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine20(1), 82-93.

Popovic, M. R., Popovic, D. B., & Keller, T. (2002). Neuroprostheses for grasping. Neurological research24(5), 443-452.

Popovic, M. R., Thrasher, T. A., Adams, M. E., Takes, V., Zivanovic, V., & Tonack, M. I. (2006). Functional electrical therapy: retraining grasping in spinal cord injury. Spinal cord44(3), 143.

Portnova, A. A., Mukherjee, G., Peters, K. M., Yamane, A., & Steele, K. M. (2018). Design of a 3D-printed, open-source wrist-driven orthosis for individuals with spinal cord injury. PloS one13(2), e0193106.

Potter-Baker, K. A., Janini, D. P., Lin, Y. L., Sankarasubramanian, V., Cunningham, D. A., Varnerin, N. M., … & Plow, E. B. (2018). Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) paired with massed practice training to promote adaptive plasticity and motor recovery in chronic incomplete tetraplegia: A pilot study. The journal of spinal cord medicine41(5), 503-517.

Prasad, S., Aikat, R., Labani, S., & Khanna, N. (2018). Efficacy of Virtual Reality in Upper Limb Rehabilitation in Patients with Spinal Cord Injury: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial. Asian spine journal12(5), 927.

Prochazka, A., Gauthier, M., Wieler, M., & Kenwell, Z. (1997). The bionic glove: an electrical stimulator garment that provides controlled grasp and hand opening in quadriplegia. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation78(6), 608-614.

Rabischong, E., Benoit, P., Benichou, M., & Allieu, Y. (1993). Length–tension relationship of the posterior deltoid to triceps transfer in C6 tetraplegic patients. Spinal Cord31(1), 33.

Raczka, R., Braun, R., & Waters, R. L. (1984). Posterior deltoid-to-triceps transfer in quadriplegia. Clinical orthopaedics and related research, (187), 163-167.

Ragnarsson, K. T. (2008). Functional electrical stimulation after spinal cord injury: current use, therapeutic effects and future directions. Spinal cord46(4), 255.

Raineteau, O., & Schwab, M. E. (2001). Plasticity of motor systems after incomplete spinal cord injury. Nature Reviews Neuroscience2(4), 263.

Ran, C., Ba, S., & Liu, X. (1992). Acupuncture treatment of spinal paraplegia with acupoints selected, basing on neuroanatomy. World J Acupunct Mox2, 3-9.

Remy-Neris, O., Milcamps, J., Chikhi-Keromest, R., Thevenon, A., Bouttens, D., & Bouilland, S. (2003). Improved kinematics of unrestrained arm raising in C5–C6 tetraplegic subjects after deltoid-to-triceps transfer. Spinal Cord41(8), 435.

Revol, M., Cormerais, A., Laffont, I., Pedelucq, J. P., Dizien, O., & Servant, J. M. (2002). Tendon transfers as applied to tetraplegia. Hand clinics18(3), 423-439.

Rice, L. A., Smith, I., Kelleher, A. R., Greenwald, K., Hoelmer, C., & Boninger, M. L. (2013). Impact of the clinical practice guideline for preservation of upper limb function on transfer skills of persons with acute spinal cord injury. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation94(7), 1230-1246.

Riemsma, R. P., Kirwan, J. R., Taal, E., & Rasker, H. J. J. (2009). Patient education for adults with rheumatoid arthritis. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

Rieser, T. V., & Waters, R. L. (1986). Long-term follow-up of the Moberg key grip procedure. The Journal of hand surgery11(5), 724-728.

Rivers, C. S., Fallah, N., Noonan, V. K., Whitehurst, D. G., Schwartz, C. E., Finkelstein, J. A., … & Ho, C. (2018). Health conditions: effect on function, health-related quality of life, and life satisfaction after traumatic spinal cord injury. A prospective observational registry cohort study. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation99(3), 443-451.

Robinson, M. A., Elliott, D., Hayes, S. J., Barton, G. J., & Bennett, S. J. (2014). Primary and submovement control of aiming in C6 tetraplegics following posterior deltoid transfer. Journal of neuroengineering and rehabilitation11(1), 112.

Rothwell, A. G., Sinnott, K. A., Mohammed, K. D., Dunn, J. A., & Sinclair, S. W. (2003). Upper limb surgery for tetraplegia: a 10-year re-review of hand function. The Journal of hand surgery28(3), 489-497.

Rushton, D. N. (2003). Functional electrical stimulation and rehabilitation—an hypothesis. Medical engineering & physics25(1), 75-78.

Sabari, J.S. (2001). Teaching activities in occupational therapy. In: Pedretti LW, Early MB, eds. Occupational therapy: practice skill for physical dysfunction. 5th edn, 83-90.

Sale, P., Ceravolo, M. G., & Franceschini, M. (2014). Action observation therapy in the subacute phase promotes dexterity recovery in right-hemisphere stroke patients. BioMed research international, 2014.

Sandrow-Feinberg, H. R., Izzi, J., Shumsky, J. S., Zhukareva, V., & Houle, J. D. (2009). Forced exercise as a rehabilitation strategy after unilateral cervical spinal cord contusion injury. Journal of neurotrauma26(5), 721-731.

Scandola, M., Tidoni, E., Avesani, R., Brunelli, G., Aglioti, S. M., & Moro, V. (2014). Rubber hand illusion induced by touching the face ipsilaterally to a deprived hand: evidence for plastic “somatotopic” remapping in tetraplegics. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience8, 404.

Scandola, M., Aglioti, S. M., Pozeg, P., Avesani, R., & Moro, V. (2017). Motor imagery in spinal cord injured people is modulated by somatotopic coding, perspective taking, and post‐lesional chronic pain. Journal of neuropsychology11(3), 305-326.

Schmidt, R. A., Lee, T. D., Winstein, C., Wulf, G., & Zelaznik, H. N. (2018). Motor control and learning: A behavioral emphasis. Human kinetics.

Scott, T. R., & Vare, V. A. (2015). Sensitivity analysis of a novel five-degrees-of-freedom user command controller in people with spinal cord injury and non-injured for full upper extremity neuroprosthesis, wearable powered orthoses and prosthetics. Medical & biological engineering & computing53(6), 511-523.

Seáñez-González, I., Pierella, C., Farshchiansadegh, A., Thorp, E., Wang, X., Parrish, T., & Mussa-Ivaldi, F. (2016). Body-machine interfaces after spinal cord injury: rehabilitation and brain plasticity. Brain sciences6(4), 61.

Shaw, E. J., Stokes, T., Camosso-Stefinovic, J., Baker, R., Baker, G. A., & Jacoby, A. (2009). Self-management education for adults with epilepsy. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

Shin, H. K., Cho, S. H., Jeon, H. S., Lee, Y. H., Song, J. C., Jang, S. H., … & Kwon, Y. H. (2008). Cortical effect and functional recovery by the electromyography-triggered neuromuscular stimulation in chronic stroke patients. Neuroscience letters442(3), 174-179.

Senjaya, F. & Midha, R. (2013). Nerve Transfer strategies for spinal cord injury. World Neurosurg, 80(6):319-26. Sicuri, C., Porcellini, G., & Merolla, G. (2014). Robotics in shoulder rehabilitation. Muscles, ligaments and tendons journal, 4(2), 207.

Simcock, J. W., Dunn, J. A., Buckley, N. T., Mohammed, K. D., Beadel, G. P., & Rothwell, A. G. (2017). Identification of patients with cervical SCI suitable for early nerve transfer to achieve hand opening. Spinal cord55(2), 131.

Sinnott, K. A., Dunn, J. A., Wangdell, J., Johanson, M. E., Hall, A. S., & Post, M. W. (2016). Measurement of outcomes of upper limb reconstructive surgery for tetraplegia. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation97(6), S169-S181.

Sipski, M. L., & Richards, J. S. (2006). Spinal cord injury rehabilitation: state of the science. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation85(4), 310-342.

Sriraman, A., Oishi, T., & Madhavan, S. (2014). Timing-dependent priming effects of tDCS on ankle motor skill learning. Brain research1581, 23-29.

Smith, B. T., Betz, R. R., Mulcahey, M. J., & Triolo, R. J. (1994). Reliability of percutaneous intramuscular electrodes for upper extremity functional neuromuscular stimulation in adolescents with C5 tetraplegia. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation75(9), 939-945.

Smith, B. T., Mulcahey, M. J., & Betz, R. R. (1996). Quantitative comparison of grasp and release abilities with and without functional neuromuscular stimulation in adolescents with tetraplegia. Spinal Cord34(1), 16.

Snoek, G. J., IJzerman, M. J., Stoffers, T. S., & Zilvold, G. (2000). Use of the Ness-HandmasterTM to restore hand function in tetraplegia: clinical experiences in 10 patients. Patient preferences for reconstructive interventions of the upper limb in tetraplegia38, 39.

Snoek, G. J., IJzerman, M. J., Hermens, H. J., Maxwell, D., & Biering-Sorensen, F. (2004). Survey of the needs of patients with spinal cord injury: impact and priority for improvement in hand function in tetraplegics. Spinal cord42(9), 526.

Snoek, G. J., IJzerman, M. J., Post, M. W., Stiggelbout, A. M., Roach, M. J., & Zilvold, G. (2005). Choice-based evaluation for the improvement of upper-extremity function compared with other impairments in tetraplegia. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation86(8), 1623-1630.

Squitieri, L., & Chung, K. C. (2008). Current utilization of reconstructive upper limb surgery in tetraplegia. Hand Clinics24(2), 169-173.

Steeves, J. D. (2007). International Campaign for Cures of Spinal Cord Injury Paralysis. Guidelines for the conduct of clinical trials for spinal cord injury (SCI) as developed by the ICCP panel: clinical trial outcome measures. Spinal Cord45, 206-221.

Sturma, A., Hruby, L. A., Prahm, C., Mayer, J. A., & Aszmann, O. C. (2018). Rehabilitation of upper extremity nerve injuries using surface EMG biofeedback: Protocols for clinical application. Frontiers in neuroscience, 12, 906.

Sun, L., Yin, D., Zhu, Y., Fan, M., Zang, L., Wu, Y., … & Hu, Y. (2013). Cortical reorganization after motor imagery training in chronic stroke patients with severe motor impairment: a longitudinal fMRI study. Neuroradiology55(7), 913-925.

Taylor, P., Esnouf, J., & Hobby, J. (2001). Pattern of use and user satisfaction of Neuro Control Freehand system. Spinal Cord39(3), 156.

Taylor, P., Esnouf, J., & Hobby, J. (2002). The functional impact of the Freehand System on tetraplegic hand function. Clinical Results. Spinal Cord40(11), 560.

Tazoe, T., & Perez, M. A. (2015). Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on recovery of function after spinal cord injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation96(4), S145-S155.

Teoli D, An J. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) [Updated 2019 Jan 6]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2018 Jan-. Available from:

Tigra, W., Navarro, B., Cherubini, A., Gorron, X., Gélis, A., Fattal, C., … & Coste, C. A. (2016). A novel EMG interface for individuals with tetraplegia to pilot robot hand grasping. IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering26(2), 291-298

Thomas, C. K., Bakels, R., Klein, C. S., & Zijdewind, I. (2014). Human spinal cord injury: motor unit properties and behaviour. Acta physiologica210(1), 5-19.

Tolmacheva, A., Savolainen, S., Kirveskari, E., Lioumis, P., Kuusela, L., Brandstack, N., … & Shulga, A. (2017). Long-term paired associative stimulation enhances motor output of the tetraplegic hand. Journal of neurotrauma34(18), 2668-2674.

Tomljanović, M., Spasić, M., Gabrilo, G., Uljević, O., & Foretić, N. (2011). Effects of five weeks of functional vs. traditional resistance training on anthropometric and motor performance variables. Kinesiology: International journal of fundamental and applied kinesiology, 43(2), 145- 154.

Triolo, R., Nathan, R., Handa, Y., Keith, M., Betz, R. R., Carroll, S., & Kantor, C. (1996). Challenges to clinical deployment of upper limb neuroprostheses. Journal of rehabilitation research and development33, 111-122.

Trumbower, R. D., Hayes, H. B., Mitchell, G. S., Wolf, S. L., & Stahl, V. A. (2017). Effects of acute intermittent hypoxia on hand use after spinal cord trauma: a preliminary study. Neurology89(18), 1904-1907.

Tsay, R.C. (1974). Textbook of Chinese acupuncture medicine: general introduction to acupuncture. Wappinger Falls, Association of Chinese Medicine and East-West Medical Centre,1:40-52.

Van Dijk, H., Jannink, M. J., & Hermens, H. J. (2005). Effect of augmented feedback on motor function of the affected upper extremity in rehabilitation patients: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine37(4), 202-211.

van Dokkum, L. E. H., Ward, T., & Laffont, I. (2015). Brain computer interfaces for neurorehabilitation–its current status as a rehabilitation strategy post-stroke. Annals of physical and rehabilitation medicine, 58(1), 3-8.

Van Tuijl, J. H., Janssen-Potten, Y. J. M., & Seelen, H. A. M. (2002). Evaluation of upper extremity motor function tests in tetraplegics. Spinal Cord40(2), 51.

van Wyk, K., Backwell, A., & Townson, A. (2015). A narrative literature review to direct spinal cord injury patient education programming. Topics in spinal cord injury rehabilitation21(1), 49-60.

Vaynman, S., Ying, Z., & Gomez-Pinilla, F. (2003). Interplay between brain-derived neurotrophic factor and signal transduction modulators in the regulation of the effects of exercise on synaptic-plasticity. Neuroscience122(3), 647-657.

Veldman, M. P., Zijdewind, I., Solnik, S., Maffiuletti, N. A., Berghuis, K. M. M., Javet, M., … & Hortobágyi, T. (2015). Direct and crossed effects of somatosensory electrical stimulation on motor learning and neuronal plasticity in humans. European journal of applied physiology115(12), 2505-2519.

Venugopalan, L., Taylor, P.N., Cobb, J.E., Swain, I.D. (2015). Upper limb functional electrical stimulation devices and their man-machine interfaces. Journal of Meical Egineering & Technology, 471-479.

Wagner, J. P., Curtin, C. M., Gater, D. R., & Chung, K. C. (2007). Perceptions of people with tetraplegia regarding surgery to improve upper-extremity function. The Journal of hand surgery32(4), 483-490.

Wangdell, J., Carlsson, G., & Fridén, J. (2013). Enhanced independence: experiences after regaining grip function in people with tetraplegia. Disability and rehabilitation35(23), 1968-1974.

Wangdell, J., Carlsson, G., & Friden, J. (2014). From regained function to daily use: experiences of surgical reconstruction of grip in people with tetraplegia. Disability and rehabilitation36(8), 678-684.

Wangdell, J., & Fridén, J. (2018). Outcomes of reconstructive hand surgery in patients with tetraplegia and neuropathic pain. Spinal cord56(12), 1194.

Ward, J. A., & Power, D. M. (2019). Restoring upper-limb function following cervical spinal cord injury: Current practice in the United Kingdom. Journal of Musculoskeletal Surgery and Research3(1), 146.

Warsi, A., Wang, P. S., LaValley, M. P., Avorn, J., & Solomon, D. H. (2004). Self-management education programs in chronic disease: A systematic review and methodological critique of the literature. Archives of Internal Medicine, 164(15), 1641–1649.

Waters, R. L., Adkins, R. H., Yakura, J. S., & Sie, I. (1994). Motor and sensory recovery following incomplete tetraplegia. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation75(3), 306-311.

Waters, R. L., Sie, I. H., Gellman, H., & Tognella, M. (1996). Functional hand surgery following tetraplegia. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation77(1), 86-94.

Waters, R., Moore, K. R., Graboff, S. R., & Paris, K. (1985). Brachioradialis to flexor pollicis longus tendon transfer for active lateral pinch in the tetraplegic. The Journal of hand surgery10(3), 385-391.

Welraeds, D., Ismail, A. A., & Parent, A. (2003). Functional reconstruction of the upper extremity in tetraplegia. Application of Moberg’s and Allieu’s procedures. Acta Orthop Belg69(6), 537-545.

WHO. (2013). Spinal Cord Injury Fact Sheet N 384

Witt, P. L., & MacKinnon, J. (1986). Trager psychophysical integration: a method to improve chest mobility of patients with chronic lung disease. Physical therapy66(2), 214-217.

Witiw, C.D. & Fehlings, M.G. (2015). Acute spinal cord injury. Journal of Spinal Disorders and Techniques, 202-210.

Winstein, C. J. (1991). Knowledge of results and motor learning—implications for physical therapy. Physical therapy71(2), 140-149.

Wong, A. M., Leong, C. P., Su, T. Y., Yu, S. W., Tsai, W. C., & Chen, C. P. (2003). Clinical trial of acupuncture for patients with spinal cord injuries. American journal of physical medicine & rehabilitation82(1), 21-27.

Wuolle, K. S., Van Doren, C. L., Bryden, A. M., Peckham, P. H., Keith, M. W., Kilgore, K. L., & Grill, J. H. (1999). Satisfaction with and usage of a hand neuroprosthesis. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation80(2), 206-213.

Wuolle, K. S., Bryden, A. M., Peckham, P. H., Murray, P. K., & Keith, M. (2003). Satisfaction with upper-extremity surgery in individuals with tetraplegia. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation84(8), 1145-1149.

Yeo, S. S., & Kwon, J. W. (2018). Wheelchair Skills Training for Functional Activity in Adults with Cervical Spinal Cord Injury. International journal of sports medicine39(12), 924-928.

Ying, Z., Roy, R. R., Edgerton, V. R., & Gómez-Pinilla, F. (2005). Exercise restores levels of neurotrophins and synaptic plasticity following spinal cord injury. Experimental neurology193(2), 411-419.

Yozbatiran, N., & Francisco, G. E. (2019). Robot-assisted Therapy for the Upper Limb after Cervical Spinal Cord Injury. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics30(2), 367-384.

Yue, Z., Zhang, X., & Wang, J. (2017). Hand rehabilitation robotics on poststroke motor recovery. Behavioural neurology, 2017.

Zancolli, E. (1975). Surgery for the Quadriplegic Hand With Active, Strong Wrist Extension Preserved A Study of 97 Cases. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research®112, 101-113.

Zariffa, J., Steeves, J., & Pai, D. K. (2012). Changes in hand muscle synergies in subjects with spinal cord injury: characterization and functional implications. The journal of spinal cord medicine35(5), 310-318.

Zhu, M. H., Wang, J., Gu, X. D., Shi, M. F., Zeng, M., Wang, C. Y., … & Fu, J. M. (2015). Effect of action observation therapy on daily activities and motor recovery in stroke patients. International Journal of Nursing Sciences2(3), 279-282.

Zoghi, M., & Galea, M. (2017). Brain Motor Control Assessment Post Early Intensive Hand Rehabilitation After Spinal Cord Injury. Topics in spinal cord injury rehabilitation24(2), 157-166.