Rebersek and Vodovik (1973) Neuroprosthesis

This is one of the first FES systems developed for grasping three decades ago. The device has three stimulation channels (2 stimulation electrodes per channel) that are used to generate the grasping function by stimulating finger flexors and extensors and thumb flexors. The user can control the stimulation intensity via different sensory interfaces such as EMG sensor, sliding resistor and pressure sensors. The main reported disadvantages of the system are the long donning and doffing times and the selectivity of stimulation is low. This device is not commercially available (Popovic et al. 2001).