Physical Stimulation Interventions


Three studies evaluated the using of physical stimulation interventions in reducing depressive symptoms post SCI (Defrin et al. 2007; Fregni et al. 2006; Tan et al. 2011). One RCT by Defrin et al. (2007) evaluated the effectiveness of transmagnetic stimulation in reducing pain post-SCI. This study found a significant decrease in depression in individuals treated with transmagnetic stimulation compared to those in the control group at time of follow-up 2-6 weeks post treatment. No significant effects were seen of transcranial electrical stimulation or transcranial direct current stimulation (Fregni et al. 2006; Tan et al. 2011).


There is level 1b evidence (from one randomized controlled trial: Defrin et al. 2007) for the effectiveness of repetitive transmagnetic stimulation in reducing depressive symptoms.