Download as a PDF

Adegoke BO, Badmos KA. Acceleration of pressure injury healing in spinal cord injured patients using interrupted direct current. Afr J Med Med Sci 2001;30(3):195-197.

Agency for Health Care Quality and Research (AHCPR). Guideline 3: Pressure injuries in adults: Prediction and Prevention; 1992. www.guidelines.gov

Agency for Health Care Quality and Research.  (AHCPR) Guideline 15: Treatment of Pressure injuries; 1992. www.guidelines.gov.

Ahluwalia R, Martin D, Mahoney JL. The operative treatment of pressure wounds. Int Wound J 2010;7(2):103-106.

Albina JE. Nutrition and wound healing. Parental and Enteral Nut 1994;18(4):367-376.

Alexander LR, Spungen AM, Liu MH, Losada M, Bauman WA. Resting metabolic rate in subjects with paraplegia: the effect of pressure sores. Arch of Phys Med and Rehab 1995;76(9):819-822.

Allen J, Houghton PE. A case study for electrical stimulation on a stage III pressure injury. Wound Care Canada 2003;2(1):34-36.

Al-Momen AK. Recombinant human erythropoietin induced rapid healing of a chronic leg ulcer in a patient with sickle cell disease. Acta Haematol 1991;86(1):46-48.

Alsousou J, Thompson M, Hulley P, Noble A, Willett K. The biology of platelet-rich plasma and its application in trauma and orthopaedic surgery: a review of literature. Journ of Bone Joint Surg 2009;91(8):987-996.

Anitua E, Aguirre JJ, Algorta J, Ayerdi E, Cabezas AI, Orive G, et al. Effectiveness of autologous preparation rich in growth factors for the treatment of chronic cutaneous ulers. Journ of Biomed Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials 2008;84b(2):415-421.

Anson CA, Shepherd C. Incidence of secondary complications in spinal cord injury. Inter Journ of Rehab Research 1996;19(1):55-66.

Anstead GM, Hart LM, Fong Sunahara J, Liter ME. Phenytoin in wound healing. Annals of Pharm 1996;30(7-8):768-775.

Arora M, Harvey LA, Glinsky JV, Chhabra HS, Hossain S, Arumugam N, et al. Telephone-based management of pressure ulcers in people with spinal cord injury in low- and middle-income countries: a randomised controlled trial. Spinal cord. 2017;55(2):141-7.

Argenta LC, Morykwas MJ. Vacuum-assisted closure: a new method for wound control and treatment: clinical experience. Ann Plast Surg 1997:38(6):563-576

Ash D. An exploration of the occurrence of pressure injuries in a British spinal injuries unit. Journ Clin Nurs 2002:11(4):470-478.

Ayello EA, Braden B. How and why to do pressure injury risk assessment. Adv Skin Wound Care 2002;15(3):125-131.

Backhaus M, Citak M, Tilkorn DJ, Meindl R, Schildhauer TA, Fehmer T. Pressure sores significantly increase the risk of developing a Fournier’s gangrene in patients with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2011;49(11):1143-1146.

Baker LL, Rubayi S, Villar F, Demuth SK. Effect of electrical stimulation waveform on healing of ulcers in human beings with spinal cord injury. Wound Repair Regen 1996;4(1):421-28.

Banks PG, Ho CH. A novel topical oxygen treatment for chronic and difficult-to-heal wounds: case studies. Journ of Spinal Cord Med 2008;31:297-301.

Baron JS, Sullivan KJ, Swaine JM, Aspinall A, Jaglal S, Presseau J, et al. Self-management interventions for skin care in people with a spinal cord injury: part 1-a systematic review of intervention content and effectiveness. Spinal cord. 2018.

Baron, J.S., Sullivan, K.J., Swaine, J.M. et al. Self-management interventions for skin care in people with a spinal cord injury: part 1—a systematic review of intervention content and effectiveness. Spinal Cord 2018; 56: 823–836.

Bates-Jensen BM, McCreath HE, Pongquan V, Apeles NC.Subepidermal moisture differentiates erythema and stage I pressure injuries in nursing home residents. Wound Repair and Regen 2008;16(2):189-197.

Bauman WA, Spungen AM, Collins JF, Raisch DW, Ho C, Deitrick GA, et al. The effect of oxandrolone on the healing of chronic pressure injuries in persons with spinal cord injury: a randomized trial. Ann Int Med 2013;158(10):718-726.

Bergstrom N, Braden BJ, Laguzza A, Holman V. The Braden Scale for Predicting Pressure Sore Risk. Nurs Res 1987;36:205-210.

Bertheuil N, Huguier V, Aillet S, Beuzeboc M,  Watier E. Biceps femoris flap for closure of ischial pressure injuries. European Journal of Plastic Surgery 2013;36(10):639-644.

Biglari B, Büchler A, Reitzel T, Swing T, Gerner H J, Ferbert T,  et al. Moghaddamspective study on flap complications after pressure injury surgery in spinal cord-injured patients. Spinal cord 2013;52(1):80-83.

Biglari B, Buchler A, Reitzel T, Swing T, Gerner HJ, Ferbert T, et al. A retrospective study on flap complications after pressure ulcer surgery in spinal cord-injured patients. Spinal cord. 2014;52(1):80-3.

Biglari B, Reitzel T, Swing T, Buchler A, Gerner HJ, Schmidmaier G, et al. A pilot study on the effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma and debridement for the treatment of nonhealing fistulas in spinal cord-injured patients. Advances in skin & wound care. 2015;28(3):123-8.

Black J, Baharestani M, Cuddigan J, Dorner B, Edsberg L, Langemo D, et al. Posthauerl pressure injury advisory panel’s updated pressure injury staging system. Urol Nurs 2007;27:144-150.

Bogie KM, Nuseibeh I, Bader DL. Early progressive changes in tissue viability in the seated spinal cord injured subject. Paraplegia 1995;33:141-147.

Bogie KM, Reger SI, Levine SP, Sahgal V. Electrical stimulation for pressure sore prevention and wound healing. Assist Technol 2000;12:50-66.

Bogie KM, Triolo RJ. Effects of regular use of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on tissue health. J Rehabil Res Dev 2003;40:469-475.

Bogie KM, Wang X, Triolo RJ. Long-term prevention of pressure injuries in high-risk patients: a single case study of the use of gluteal neuromuscular electric stimulation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2006;87:585-591.

Bogie KM, Ho CH. Pulsatile lavage for pressure injury management in spinal cord injury: a retrospective clinical safety review. Spinal Cord 2013;59(3):35-38.

Borgognone A, Anniboletti T, De Vita F, Schirosi M, Palombo P. Ischiatic pressure sores: our experience in coupling a split-muscle flap and a fasciocutaneous flap in a ‘criss-cross’ way. Spinal cord 2010;48(10):770-773.

Brace JA, Schubart JR. A prospective evaluation of a pressure injury prevention and management E-learning program for adults with spinal cord injury. Ostomy Wound Management 2010;56(8):40-50.

Brewer S, Desneves K, Pearce L,  Mills K, Dunn L, Brown D,  et al. Effect of an arginine-containing nutritional supplement on pressure injury healing in community spinal patients. J Wound care 2010;19:7:311-6.

Brienza DM, Karg PE. Seat cushion optimization: a comparison of interface pressure and tissue stiffness characteristics for spinal cord injured and elderly patients. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1998;79:388-394.

Broussard CL. Dressing decisions. In: Krasner DL, Rodeheaver GT, Sibbald RG, editors. Chronic Wound Care: A Clinical Source Book for Healthcare Professionals. Malvern, PA: HMP Communications 2007; 22:249-262.

Burke DT, Ho CH, Saucier MA, Stewart G. Effects of Hydrotherapy on Pressure injury Healing. Amer Journ of Phys Med and Rehab 1998;77(5):394-398.

Byrne DW, Salzberg CA. Major risk factors for pressure injuries in the spinal cord disabled: a literature review. Spinal Cord 1996;34:255-263.

Cardenas DD, Hoffman JM, Kirshblum S, McKinley W. Etiology and incidence of rehospitalization after traumatic spinal cord injury: a multicenter analysis. Arch of Phys Med and Rehab 2004;85(11):1757-1763.

Carley PJ, Wainapel SF. Electrotherapy for acceleration of wound healing: low intensity direct current. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1985;66:443-446.

Chan BC, Nanwa N, Mittmann N, Bryant D, Coyte PC,  Houghton PE. The average cost of pressure injury management in a community dwelling spinal cord injury population. Int Wound Journ 2013;10(4):431-440.

Chen Y, DeVivo MJ, Jackson AB. Pressure injury prevalence in people with spinal cord injury: age-period-duration effects. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2005;86:1208-1213.

Chen D, Apple Jr DF, Hudson LM, Bode R. Medical complications during acute rehabilitation following spinal cord injury—current experience of the Model Systems. Arch of Phys Med and Rehab 1999;80(11):1397-1401.

Chen, X., Jiang, Z., Chen, Z., & Wang, D. (2011). Application of skin traction for surgical treatment of grade IV pressure sore: a clinical report of 160 cases. Spinal cord, 49(1), 76-80.

Citak M, Backhaus M, Tilkorn DJ, O’Loughlin PF, Meindl R, Muhr G, et al. Necrotizing fasciitis in patients with spinal cord injury: an analysis of 25 patients. Spine 2011;36(18):1225-1229.

Clark FA, Jackson JM, Scott MD, Carlson ME, Atkins MS, Uhles-Tanaka D, et al. Data-based models of how pressure injuries develop in daily-living contexts of adults with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2006;87:1516-1525.

Cobb JE, Belanger LM, Park SE, Shen T, Rivers CS, Dvorak MF, et al. Evaluation of a pilot Pressure Ulcer Prevention Initiative (PUPI) for patients with traumatic spinal cord injury. Journal of wound care. 2014;23(5):211-2, 4, 6-8 passim.

Coggrave M, West H, Leonard B. Topical negative pressure for pressure injury management. Br J Nurs 2002;11(6):29-36.

Cogan AM, Blanchard J, Garber SL, Vigen CL, Carlson M, Clark FA. Systematic review of behavioral and educational interventions to prevent pressure ulcers in adults with spinal cord injury. Clinical rehabilitation. 2017;31(7):871-80.

Coggrave MJ, Rose LS. A specialist seating assessment clinic: changing pressure relief practice. Spinal Cord 2003;41:692-695.

Consortium for Spinal Cord Medicine. Pressure injury prevention and treatment following spinal cord injury: A clinical practice guideline for health care professionals (pp. 1-77). 2000.

Conway H, Griffith BH. Plastic surgery for closure of decubitus ulcers in patients with paraplegia: based on experience with 1,000 cases. The Amer Journ of Surg 1956;91(6):946-975.

Crenshaw RP, Vistnes LM. A decade of pressure sore research: 1977-1987. J Rehabil Res Dev 1989;26:63-74.

Cukjati D, Robnik-Šikonja M, Reberšek S, Kononenko I, Miklavčič D. Prognostic factors in the prediction of chronic wound healing by electrical stimulation. Med and Bio Eng and Comp 2001;39(5):542-550.

Daniel RK, Priest DL, Wheatley DC. Etiologic factors in pressure sores: An experimental model. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1981;62(10):492-498.

Davis JJ. Operative treatment of scar following bed sores. Surgery 1938;3:1.

De Angelis B, Lucarini L, Agovino A, Migner A, Orlandi F, Floris M, et al. Combined use of super-oxidised solutions with negative pressure for the treatment of pressure injuries: case report. Int Wound Jorn 2013;10(3):336-339.

DeJong G, Tian WF, Hsieh CH, Junn C, Karam C, Ballard PH, et al. Rehospitalization in the first year of traumatic spinal cord injury after discharge from medical rehabilitation. Arch Phys Med Rehab 2013;94(4):87-97.

De Laat EH, van den Boogaard MH, Spauwen PH, van Kuppevelt DH, van Goor H, Schoonhoven L. Faster wound healing with topical negative pressure therapy in difficult-to-heal wounds: a prospective randomized controlled trial. Annals of Plastic Surgery 2011;67(6):626-631.

DeLisa JA, Mikulic MA. Pressure injuries. What do we do if preventive management fails. Pressure injuries 1985;77(6):209-212.

Dessy LA, Serratore F, Corrias F, Parisi P, Mazzocchi M, Carlesimo B. Retention of polyurethane foam fragments during VAC therapy: a complication to be considered. International wound journal. 2015;12(2):132-6.

Diaz S, Li X, Rodriquez L, Salgado J. Update in the surgical management of decubitus ulcers. Anaplastology 2013;2(3):1-10.

Di Caprio G, Larocca F, Scioli M, Ziccardi P, Nicoletti G, Iervolino S, et al. Fat grafting for the prevention of pressure ulcers: a case series. European Journal of Plastic Surgery. 2016;39(2):113-8.

Dorner, B. The complete guide to nutrition care for pressure injuries: Prevention and treatment. Akron, OH: Becky Dorner and Associates. 2012.

Dover H, Pickard W, Swain I, Grundy D. The effectiveness of a pressure clinic in preventing pressure sores. Paraplegia 1992;30(4):267-272.

Dunn CA, Carlson M, Jackson JM, Clark FA. Response factors surrounding progression of pressure injuries in community-residing adults with spinal cord injury. Amer Journ of Occup Therapy 2009;63(3):301-309.

Drummond D, Breed AL, Narechania R. Relationship of spine deformity and pelvic obliquity on sitting pressure distributions and decubitus ulceration. Journ of Pediatric Orthopaedics 1985;5(4):396-402.

Dwivedi MK, Bhagat AK, Srivastava RN, Jain A, Baghel K, Raj S. Expression of MMP-8 in Pressure Injuries in Spinal Cord Injury Patients Managed by Negative Pressure Wound Therapy or Conventional Wound Care: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of wound, ostomy, and continence nursing: official publication of The Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nurses Society. 2017;44(4):343-9.

Ehrlich HP, Tarver H, Hunt TK. Inhibitory effects of vitamin E on collagen synthesis and wound repair. Annals of surgery 1972;175(2):235.

Erba P, Wettstein R, Schumacher R, Schwenzer-Zimmerer K, Pierer G, Kalbermatten DF. Silicone moulding for pressure sore debridement. Journ of Plast Reconstr  Aesthet Surg 2010;63(3):550-553.

Feedar JA, Kloth LC, Gentzkow GD. Chronic dermal ulcer healing enhanced with monophasic pulsed electrical stimulation. Phys Ther 1991;71(9):639-649.

Ferguson AC, Keating JF, Delargy MA, Andrews BJ. Reduction of seating pressure using FES in patients with spinal cord injury: a preliminary report. Paraplegia 1992;30(7):474-478.

Fisher SV, Szymke TE, Apte SY, Kosiak M. Wheelchair cushion effect on skin temperature. Arch Phys Med Rehab 1978;59(2):68-72.

Fleck CA, Sprigle S. Support surfaces: Tissue integrity, terms, principles, and choice. In: Krasner DL, Rodeheaver GT, Sibbald RG, editors. Chronic wound care: A clinical source book for healthcare professionals. Malvern, PA: HMP Communications, 2007:629-640.

Foster RD, Anthony JP, Mathes S, Hoffman WY, Young D, Eshima I. Flap selection as a determinant of success in pressure sore coverage. Arch of Surg 1997;132(8):868-873.

Fuhrer MJ, Garber SL, Rintala DH, Clearman R, Hart KA. Pressure injuries in community-resident persons with spinal cord injury: prevalence and risk factors. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1993;74(11):1172-1177.

Galea M, Tumminia J, Garback LM. Telerehabilitation in spinal cord injury persons: a novel approach. Telemed J E Health 2006;12(2):160-162.

Garber SL, Reddy NP, McLane KM, Krouskop TA. Role of technology in pressure injury prevention. In: Krasner DL, Rodeheaver GT, Sibbald RG, editors. Chronic wound care: A clinical source book for healthcare professionals (pp. 653-660). Malvern, PA: HMP Communications. 2007.

Garber SL, Rintala DH, Holmes SA, Rodriguez GP, Friedman J. A structured educational model to improve pressure injury prevention knowledge in veterans with spinal cord dysfunction. J Rehab Res Dev 2002;39(5):575-588.

Garber SL, Rintala DH, Rossi CD, Hart KA, Fuhrer MJ. Reported pressure injury prevention and management techniques by persons with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehab 1996;77(8):744-749.

Garber SL, Rintala DH, Hart K A,  Fuhrer MJ. Pressure injury risk in spinal cord injury: predictors of ulcer status over 3 years. Arch of Phys Med and Rehab 2000;81(4):465-471.

Gelis A, Pariel S, Colin D, Barrois B, Passadori Y, Ribinik P, et al. What is the role of TPE in management of patients at risk or with pressure injury as of 2012? Towards development of French guidelines for clinical practice. Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine 2012;55(7):517-529.

Ghaisas S, Pyatak EA, Blanche E, Blanchard J, Clark F. Lifestyle changes and pressure ulcer prevention in adults with spinal cord injury in the pressure ulcer prevention study lifestyle intervention. The American journal of occupational therapy : official publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association. 2015;69(1):6901290020p1-10.

Grassetti L, Scalise A, Lazzeri D, Carle F, Agostini T, Gesuita R, et al. Perforator flaps in late-stage pressure sores treatment: Outcome analysis of 11-year-long experience with 143 patients. Ann Plast Surg 2013.

Grassetti L, Scalise A, Lazzeri D, Carle F, Agostini T, Gesuita R, et al. Perforator flaps in late-stage pressure sore treatment: outcome analysis of 11-year-long experience with 143 patients. Ann Plast Surg. 2014;73(6):679-85.

Griffin JW, Tooms RE, Mendius RA, Clifft JK, Vander ZR, El Zeky F et al. Efficacy of high voltage pulsed current for healing of pressure injuries in patients with spinal cord injury. Phys Ther 1991;71(6):433-444.

Guihan M, Smith BM, LaVela SL, Garber SL. Factors predicting pressure injuries in veterans with spinal cord injuries. Amer Journ of Phys Med & Rehab 2008;87(9):750-7.

Guihan M, Bates-Jenson BM, Chun S, Parachuri R, Chin AS, McCreath H. Assessing the feasibility of subepidermal moisture to predict erythema and stage 1 pressure injuries in persons with spinal cord injury: a pilot study. The journal of spinal cord medicine 2012;35(1):46-52.

Guihan M, Bombardier CH, Ehde DM, Rapacki LM, Rogers TJ, Bates-Jensen B, et al. Comparing multicomponent interventions to improve skin care behaviors and prevent recurrence in veterans hospitalized for severe pressure ulcers. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. 2014;95(7):1246-53.e3.

Guihan M, Sohn MW, Bauman WA, Spungen AM, Powell-Cope GM, Thomason SS, et al. Difficulty in Identifying Factors Responsible for Pressure Ulcer Healing in Veterans With Spinal Cord Injury. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. 2016;97(12):2085-94.e1.

Gutierrez EM, Alm M, Hultling C, Saraste H. Measuring seating pressure, area, and asymmetry in persons with spinal cord injury. Euro Spine Journ 2004;13(4)374-379.

Gyawali S, Solis L, Chong SL, Curtis C, Seres P, Kornelsen I, et al. Intermittent electrical stimulation redistributes pressure and promotes tissue oxygenation in loaded muscles of individuals with spinal cord injury. Journ Appl Physiol (2011);110(1):246-255.

Harrow JJ, Mayrovitz HN. Subepidermal moisture surrounding pressure ulcers in persons with a spinal cord injury: a pilot study. The journal of spinal cord medicine. 2014;37(6):719-28.

Hauptfleisch J, Meagher TM, Hughes R.J, Singh JP, Graham A, López de Heredia L (2013); Interobserver Agreement of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Signs of Osteomyelitis in Pelvic Pressure injuries in Patients With Spinal Cord Injury. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation, 94(6),1107-1111.

He J, Xu H, Wang T, Ma S,  Dong J. Treatment of complex ischial pressure sores with free partial lateral latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flaps in paraplegic patients. Journ of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery 2012;65(5);634-639.

Heyneman A, Beele H, Vanderwee K, Defloor T. A systematic review of the use of hydrocolloids in the treatment of pressure injuries. Journ Clin Nurs 2008;17:1164-1173.

Hilgart M, Ritterband L, Baxter K, Alfano A, Ratliff C, Kinzie M, et al. Development and perceived utility and impact of a skin care Internet intervention. Internet Interventions. 2014;1(3):149-57.

Hill ML, Cronkite RC, Ota DT, Yao EC,  Kirat BJ. Validation of home telehealth for pressure injury assessment: a study in patients with spinal cord injury. Journ of Telemed and Telecare 2012;15:196-202.

Ho CH, Bensitel T, Wang X, Bogie KM. Pulsatile lavage for the enhancement of pressure injury healing: a randomized controlled trial. Physt Therapy 2012;92(1):38-48.

Ho CH, Powell HL, Collins JF, Bauman WA, Spungen AM. Poor nutrition is a relative contraindication to negative pressure wound therapy for pressure injuries: preliminary observations in patients with spinal cord injury. Advances in Skin and Wound Care 2010;23(11):508-516.

Hobson DA. Comparative effects of posture on pressure and shear at the body-seat interface. J Rehabil Res Dev 1992;29(4):21-31.

Hollisaz MT, Khedmat H, Yari F. A randomized clinical trial comparing hydrocolloid, phenytoin and simple dressings for the treatment of pressure injuries. BMC Dermatol 2004;4(1):18.

Houghton PE, Campbell KE and CPG Panel. Canadian best practice guidelines for the prevention and management of pressure injuries in people with spinal cord injury: A resource handbook for clinicians. Accessed at http://www.onf.org. 2013.

Houghton PE, Campbell KE. Therapeutic modalities in the treatment of chronic recalcitrant wounds. In: Krasner DL, Rodeheaver GT, Sibbald RG, editors. Chronic wound care: A clinical source book for healthcare professionals (pp. 403-415). Malvern, PA: HMP Communications. 2007.

Houghton PE, Fraser CH. Biomarkers that predict response to adjunctive therapies in people with spinal cord injury. Proceedings of World Union of Wound Healing Societies. 2008.

Houlihan BV, Jette A, Friedman AH, Paasche-Orlow M, Ni P, Wierbicky J, et al. A pilot study of a telehealth intervention for persons with spinal cord dysfunction. Spinal Cord 2013;51(9):715–720.

Hug K, Stumm C, Debecker I, Fellinghauer CS, Peter C, Hund-Georgiadis M. Self-Efficacy and Pressure Ulcer Prevention After Spinal Cord Injury—Results From a Nationwide Community Survey in Switzerland (SwiSCI). PM and R. 2018;10(6):573-86.

Idowu OK, Yinusa W, Gbadegesin SA, Adebule GT. Risk factors for pressure injuryation in a resource constrained spinal injury service. Spinal Cord 2011;49(5):643-67.

Isik FF, Engrav LH, Rand RP, Kierney P, Cardenas DD. Reducing the period of immobilization following pressure sore surgery: a prospective, randomized trial. Plastic and reconstructive surgery 1997;100(2):350-354.

Jan YK, Liao F, Burns S. Effect of spinal cord injury on non-linear complexity of skin blood flow oscillations. In C. Stephanidis, Universal access in human-computer interaction. Applications and services (pp. 345-355). Berlin, Germany: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. 2011.

Jercinovic A, Karba R, Vodovnik L, Stefanovska A, Kroselj P, Turk R, et al. Low frequency pulsed current and pressure injury healing. Rehab Eng IEEE Transactions on 1994;2(4):225-233.

Jones ML, Mathewson CS, Adkins VK, Ayllon T. Use of behavioral contingencies to promote prevention of recurrent pressure injuries. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2003;84(6):796-802.

Josvay J, Klauber A, Both B, Kelemen PB, Varga ZZ, Pesthy PC. The operative treatment of pressure sores in the pelvic region: A 10-year period overview. The journal of spinal cord medicine. 2015;38(4):432-8.

Jugun K, Richard JC, Lipsky BA, Kressmann B, Pittet-Cuenod B, Suva D, et al. Factors Associated With Treatment Failure of Infected Pressure Sores. Annals of surgery. 2016;264(2):399-403.

Kaada B.  Vasodilation induced by transcutaneous nerve stimulation in peripheral ischemia (Raynaud’s phenomenon and diabetic polyneuropathy). Eur Heart J 1982;3(4):303-14.

Kalliainen LK, Gordillo GM, Schlanger R, Sen CK. Topical oxygen as an adjunct to wound healing: a clinical case series. Pathophysiology 2003;9(2):81-87.

Kanno N, Nakamura T, Yamanaka M, Kouda K, Nakamura T,  Tajima F. Low-echoic lesions underneath the skin in subjects with spinal-cord injury. Spinal cord 2008;47(3):225-229.

Karatas GK, Tosun AK, Kanatl U. Center-of-pressure displacement during postural changes in relation to pressure injuries in spinal cord-injured patients. Amer Journ of Phys Med and Rehab 2008;87(3):177-182.

Karba R, Semrov D, Vodovnik L, Benko H, Savrin R. DC electrical stimulation for chronic wound healing enhancement. Part 1. Clinical study and determination of electrical field distribution in the numerical wound model. Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics.1997;43(2):265-270.

Karsli PB, Gurcay E, Karaahmet OZ, Cakci A. High-Voltage Electrical Stimulation Versus Ultrasound in the Treatment of Pressure Ulcers. Advances in Skin and Wound Care. 2017;30(12):565-70.

Kaya AZ, Turani N, Akyuz M. The effectiveness of a hydrogel dressing compared with standard management of pressure injuries. Journ of Wound Care 2005;14(1):42-44.

Keast DH, Fraser C. Treatment of chronic skin ulcers in individuals with anemia of chronic disease using recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO): a review of four cases. Ostomy Wound Manage 2004;50(10):64-70.

Keast DH, Parslow N, Houghton PE, Norton L, Fraser C. Best practice recommendations for the prevention and treatment of pressure injuries: Update 2006. Wound Care Canada 2006;20(8):22-32.

Kelin EE, Gorling J: Healing qualities of an epilepsy drug. Dental Prog 1961;1:126-129.

Kennedy P, Berry C, Coggrave M, Rose L, Hamilton L. The effect of a specialist seating assessment clinic on the skin management of individuals with spinal cord injury. J Tissue Viability 2003;13(3):122-125.

Kenneweg KA, Welch MC, Welch PJ. A 9-year retrospective evaluation of 102 pressure ulcer reconstructions. Journal of wound care. 2015;24 Suppl 4a:S12-21.

Kierney PC, Engrav LH, Isik FF, Esselman PC, Cardenas DD, Rand RP. Results of 268 pressure sores in 158 patients managed jointly by plastic surgery and rehabilitation medicine. Plast and Reconstr Surg 1998;102(3):765-772.

Kim J, Ho CH, Wang X, Bogie K. The use of sensory electrical stimulation for pressure injury prevention. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice 2010;26(8):528-536.

Kim CM, Yun IS, Lee DW, Lew DH, Rah DK, Lee WJ. Treatment of ischial pressure sores with both profunda femoris artery perforator flaps and muscle flaps. Archives of plastic surgery. 2014;41(4):387-93.

Kim JY, Cho E. Evaluation of a self-efficacy enhancement program to prevent pressure ulcers in patients with a spinal cord injury. Japan journal of nursing science : JJNS. 2017;14(1):76-86.

King RB, Porter SL, Vertiz KB. Preventive skin care beliefs of people with spinal cord injury. Rehab Nurs 2008;33(4):154-62.

Kloth LC, Berman JE, Dumit-Minkel S, Sutton CH, Papanek PE, Wurzel J. Effects of a normothermic dressing on pressure injury healing. Adv Skin Wound Care 2000;13(2):69-74.

Kloth LC, Feedar JA. Acceleration of wound healing with high voltage, monophasic, pulsed current. Phys Ther 1988;68(4):503-508.

Klotz R, Joseph PA, Ravaud JF, Wiart L,  Barat M. The Tetrafigap Survey on the long-term outcome of tetraplegic spinal cord injured persons: Part III. Medical complications and associated factors. Spinal cord 2002;40(9):457-467.

Krasner D. Chronic wound care: a clinical source book for healthcare professionals. Health Management Publication Communications. 1990.

Krause JS, Broderick L. Patterns of recurrent pressure injuries after spinal cord injury: identification of risk and protective factors 5 or more years after onset. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004;85(8):1257-1264.

Krause JS, Vines CL, Farley TL, Sniezek J, Coker J. An exploratory study of pressure injuries after spinal cord injury: relationship to protective behaviors and risk factors. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82(1):107-113.

Krause JS. Skin sores after spinal cord injury: relationship to life adjustment. Spinal Cord 1998;36(1):51-56.

Krishnan S, Vodovotz Y, Karg PE, Constantine G, Sowa GA, Constantine FJ, et al. Inflammatory Mediators Associated With Pressure Ulcer Development in Individuals With Pneumonia After Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury: A Pilot Study. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. 2017;98(9):1792-9.

Krouskop TA, Nobel PC, Garber SL, et al. The effectiveness of preventive management in reducing the occurrence of pressure sores. Journ Rehabil Res Dev 1983;20(1):74-83.

Kuo PJ, Chew KY, Kuo YR, Lin PY. Comparison of outcomes of pressure sore reconstructions among perforator flaps, perforator-based rotation fasciocutaneous flaps, and musculocutaneous flaps. Microsurgery. 2014;34(7):547-53.

Lala D, Spaulding SJ, Burke SM, Houghton PE. Electrical stimulation therapy for the treatment of pressure ulcers in individuals with spinal cord injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis. International wound journal. 2016;13(6):1214-26.

Lamid S, El Ghatit AZ. Smoking, spasticity and pressure sores in spinal cord injured patients. Amer Journ Phys Med 1983;62(6):300-306.

Lane CA, Selleck C, Chen Y, Tang Y. The Impact of Smoking and Smoking Cessation on Wound Healing in Spinal Cord-Injured Patients With Pressure Injuries: A Retrospective Comparison Cohort Study. Journal of wound, ostomy, and continence nursing : official publication of The Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nurses Society. 2016;43(5):483-7.

Lawes CJ. Patient education in practice: an international survey of spinal injury units. Int Journ Rehabil Res 1985;8(3):321–329.

Levi R, Hultling C, Nash MS, Seiger Å. The Stockholm spinal cord injury study: 1. Medical problems in a regional SCI population. Spinal Cord 1995;33(6), 308-315.

Levine SP, Kett RL, Cederna PS, Brooks SV. Electric muscle stimulation for pressure sore prevention: tissue shape variation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1990;71(3):210-215.

Li Z, Zhang M, Wang Y, Wang Y, Xin Q, Li J, et al. Wavelet analysis of sacral tissue oxygenation oscillations by near-infrared spectroscopy in persons with spinal cord injury. Microvascular Research 2011;81(1):81-87.

Lin H, Hou C, Chen A, Xu Z. Long-term outcome of using posterior-thigh fasciocutaneous flaps for the treatment of ischial pressure sores. Journ of Reconstr Microsurgery 2010; 26(06):355-358.

Liu X, Meng Q, Song H,  Zhao T. A traditional Chinese herbal formula improves pressure injuries in paraplegic patients: A randomized, parallel-group, retrospective trial. Experimental and Therapeutic Med 2013;5(6):1693-1696.

Liu L, Moody J, Gall A. A Quantitative, Pooled Analysis and Systematic Review of Controlled Trials on the Impact of Electrical Stimulation Settings and Placement on Pressure Ulcer Healing Rates in Persons With Spinal Cord Injuries. Ostomy/wound management. 2016;62(7):16-34.

Ljung AC, Stenius MC, Bjelak S, Lagergren JF. Surgery for pressure ulcers in spinal cord-injured patients following a structured treatment programme: a 10-year follow-up. International wound journal. 2017;14(2):355-9.

Loerakker S, Huisman ES, Seelen HA, Glatz JF, Baaijens FP, Oomens CW, et al. Plasma variations of biomarkers for muscle damage in male nondisabled and spinal cord injured subjects. Journ of Rehab Research and Develop 2012;49(3):361-372.

López de Heredia L, Hauptfleisch J, Hughes R, Graham, A, Meagher TM. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Pressure Sores in Spinal Cord Injured Patients: Accuracy in Predicting Osteomyelitis. Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehab 2012;18(2):146-148.

Lui QL, Nicholson GP, Knight SL, Chelvarajah R, Gall A, Middleton FRI, et al. Pressure changes under the ischial tuberosities of seated individuals during sacral nerve root stimulation. J Rehab Res Dev 2006b;43(2):209-218.

Lui QL, Nicholson GP, Knight SL, Chelvarajah R, Gall A, Middleton FRI, et al. Interface pressure and cutaneous hemoglobin and oxygenation changes under ischial tuberosities during sacral nerve root stimulation in spinal cord injury. Journ Rehabil Res Dev 2006a;43(4):553-564.

Maragakis LL, Cosgrove SE, Song X, Kim D, Rosenbaum P, Ciesla, N, et al. An outbreak of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii associated with pulsatile lavage wound treatment. Jama 2004;292(24):3006-3011.

Marin J, Nixon J,  Gorecki C. A systematic review of risk factors for the development and recurrence of pressure injuries in people with spinal cord injuries.Spinal Cord 2013;51(7):522-527.

Marriott R,  Rubayi S. Successful truncated osteomyelitis treatment for chronic osteomyelitis secondary to pressure injuries in spinal cord injury patients. Annals of Plast Surg 2008;61(4):425-429.

Mathewson C, Adkins VK, Jones ML. Initial experiences with telerehabilitation and contingency management programs for the prevention and management of pressure injuryation in patients with spinal cord injuries. Journ Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs 2000;27(5):269-271.

Mathewson C, Adkins VK, Lenyoun MA, Schmidt AM, Jones ML. Using telemedicine in the treatment of pressure injuries. Ostomy Wound Manage 1999;45(11):58-62.

Mawson AR, Siddiqui FH, Connolly BJ, Sharp CJ, Stewart GW, Summer WR, et al. Effect of high voltage pulsed galvanic stimulation on sacral transcutaneous oxygen tension levels in the spinal cord injured. Paraplegia 1993;31(5):311-319.

May L, Day R, Warren S. Evaluation of patient education in spinal cord injury rehabilitation: Knowledge, problem-solving and perceived importance. Disabil Rehabil, 2006;28(7):405–413.

McKinley WO, Jackson AB, Cardenas DD,  De Vivo MJ. Long-term medical complications after traumatic spinal cord injury: a regional model systems analysis. Arch of Phys Med and Rehab 1999;80(11):1402-1410.

Mehta A, Baker TA, Shoup M, Brownson K, Amde S, Doren E, et al. Biplanar flap reconstruction for pressure injuries: experience in patients with immobility from chronic spinal cord injuries. Amer Journ Surg 2012;203(3):303-306.

Middleton JW, Lim K, Taylor L, Soden R,  Rutkowski S. Patterns of morbidity and rehospitalisation following spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2004;42(6):359-367.

Mittmann N, Chan BC, Craven BC, Isogai PK, Houghton P. Evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of electrical stimulation therapy for pressure injuries in spinal cord injury. Arch of Phys Med and Rehab 2011;92(6):866-872.

Mhatre P, Huang M, Cohler M. Autonomic Dysreflexia With Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy: A Report of Two Cases. PMR 2013;5(3):238-241.

Mortenson WB, Miller WC. A review of scales for assessing the risk of developing a pressure injury in individuals with SCI. Spinal Cord 2008;46(3):168-175.

Müllner T, Mrkonjic L, Kwasny O, Vécsei V. The use of negative pressure to promote the healing of tissue defects: a clinical trial using the vacuum sealing technique. Br J Plast Surg 1997;50(3):194-199.

Mumcuoglu KY, Ingber A, Gilead L, Stessman J, Friedmann R, Schulman H et al. Maggot therapy for the treatment of intractable wounds. Int Journ Dermatol 1999;38(8):623-627.

National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) James Lind Alliance (JLA) Priority Setting Partnerships (PSP). Pressure Ulcers Top 10. 2019. Available at http://www.jla.nihr.ac.uk/priority-setting-partnerships/pressure-ulcers/top-10-priorities/priority-1-from-the-pressure-ulcer-psp.htm

National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel. Pressure injury stages revised by NPIAP. 2007. Available at http://www.NPIAP.org/resources/educational-and-clinical-resources/NPUAP-pressure-ulcer-stagescategories/.

New PW, Rawicki HB, Bailey MJ. Nontraumatic spinal cord injury rehabilitation: pressure injury patterns, prediction, and impact. Arch of Phys Med and Rehab 2004;85(1):87-93.

Niazi ZB, Salzberg CA, Byrne DW, Viehbeck M. Recurrence of initial pressure injury in persons with spinal cord injuries. Adv Wound Care 1997;10(3):38-42.

Nogueira PC, Caliri MH,  Haas VJ. Profile of patients with spinal cord injuries and occurrence of pressure injury at a university hospital. Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem 2006;14(3): 372-377.

Nola GT, Vistnes LM. Differential response of skin and muscle in the experimental production of pressure sores. Plast Reconstr Surg 1980;66(5):723-733.

Noreau  L, Proulx P, Gagnon L, Drolet M, Laramée MT. Secondary impairments after spinal cord injury: A population-based study. Amer Journ Phys Med Rehabil. 2009;79(6):526-535.

Nussbaum EL, Biemann I, Mustard B. Comparison of ultrasound/ultraviolet-C and laser for treatment of pressure injuries in patients with spinal cord injury. Phys Ther 1994;74(9):812-823.

Onigbinde A, Ogunsanya GI, Oniyangi SO. Pressure injury incidence among high-risk inpatients in Nigeria. British Journ of Nurs 2012;21(8):4-10.

Ovington LG. Dressings and ajunctive therapies: AHCPR guidelines revisited. Ostomy Wound Manage 1999;45(1):94-106.

Phillips VL, Temkin A, Vesmarovich S, Burns R, Idleman L. Using telehealth interventions to prevent pressure injuries in newly injured spinal cord injury patients post-discharge. Results from a pilot study. Int Journ Technol Assess Health Care 1999;15:749-755.

Phillips VL, Vesmarovich S, Hauber R, Wiggers E, Egner A. Telehealth: reaching out to newly injured spinal cord patients. Public Health Rep 2001;116(1):94-102.

Potter PJ, Wolfe DL, Burkell JA, Hayes KC. Challenges in educating individuals with SCI to reduce secondary conditions. Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehab. 2004;10(1):30-40.

Previnaire JG, Fontet P, Opsomer C, Simon M, Ducrocq T. Lipofilling (fat grafting) in the secondary prevention of ischial tuberosity and pelvic pressure ulcers. Spinal cord. 2016;54(1):39-45.

Rabadi MH, Vincent AS. Do vascular risk factors contribute to the prevalence of pressure injury in veterans with spinal cord injury?. The Journ of Spinal Cord Med 2011;34(1):46-51.

Raghavan P, Raza WA, Ahmed YS, Chamberlain MA. Prevalence of pressure sores in a community sample of spinal injury patients. Clinical Rehab 2003;17(8):879-884.

Rappl LM. Physiological changes in tissues denervated by spinal cord injury tissues and possible effects on wound healing. International Wound Journal 2008;5(3):435-44.

Ravaghi H, Flemming K, Cullum N, Olyaee Manesh A. Electromagnetic therapy for treating venous leg ulcers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006;2.

Recio AC, Felter CE, Schneider AC, McDonald JW. High-voltage electrical stimulation for the management of Stage III and IV pressure injuries among adults with spinal cord injury: Demonstration of its utility for recalcitrant wounds below the level of injury. The Journ of Spinal Cord Medicine 2012;35(1):58.

Reger SI, Ranganathan VK, Sahgal V. Support surface interface pressure, microenvironment, and the prevalence of pressure injuries: an analysis of the literature. Ostomy Wound Management 2007;53(10):50-8.

Relander M,  Palmer B. Recurrence of surgically treated pressure sores.Scandinavian Journ of Plast and Reconstr Surg and Hand Surg 1998;22(1):89-92.

Richard‐Denis A, Thompson C, Mac‐Thiong JM. Effectiveness of a multi-layer foam dressing in preventing sacral pressure ulcers for the early acute care of patients with a traumatic spinal cord injury: comparison with the use of a gel mattress. International wound journal. 2017;14(5):874-81.

Richards JS, Waites K, Chen YY, Kogos K, Schumitt MM. The epidemiology of secondary conditions following spinal cord injury. Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehab 2004;10(1):15-29.

Rick Hansen Institute (2009). Rick Hansen Institute. Available at http://www.rickhanseninstitute.org/en/publications/news-archive/47-maintaining-health-at-home.

Rintala DH, Garber SL, Friedman JD, Holmes SA. Preventing recurrent pressure injuries in veterans with spinal cord injury: impact of a structured education and follow-up intervention. Arch of Phys Med and Rehab 2008;89(8):1429-1441.

Rodriguez GP, Garber SL. Prospective study of pressure injury risk in spinal cord injury patients. Paraplegia 1994;32(3):150-158.

Rund C & Sussman G. Nontraditional or alternative topical therapies for wound care. In: Krasner DL, Rodeheaver GT, Sibbald RG, editors. Chronic wound care: A clinical source book for healthcare professionals (pp. 287-295). Malvern, PA: HMP Communications. 2007.

Saladin LK, Krause JS. Pressure injury prevalence and barriers to treatment after spinal cord injury: comparisons of four groups based on race-ethnicity. Neurorehab 2009;24(1):57-66.

Salzberg CA, Byrne DW, Cayten CG, van Niewerburgh P, Murphy JG, Viehbeck M. A new pressure injury risk assessment scale for individuals with spinal cord injury. Amer Journ Phys Med Rehab 1996;75(2):96-104.

Salzberg CA, Cooper-Vastola SA, Perez F, Viehbeck MG, Byrne DW. The effects of non-thermal pulsed electromagnetic energy on wound healing of pressure injuries in spinal cord-injured patients: a randomized, double-blind study. Ostomy Wound Manage 1995;41(3):42-8.

Saunders LL, Krause JS, Peters BA, Reed KS. The relationship of pressure injuries, race, and socioeconomic conditions after spinal cord injury. The Journ of Spinal Cord Med 2010;33(4):387.

Scevola S, Nicoletti G, Brenta F, Isernia P, Maestri M,  Faga A. Allogenic platelet gel in the treatment of pressure sores: a pilot study. Int Wound Journ 2010;7(3):184-190.

Schmuckler J. Acoustic pressure wound therapy to facilitate granulation tissue in sacral pressure injuries in patients with compromised mobility: A case series. Ostomy Wound Management 2008;54(8):50-53.

Schryvers OI, Stranc MF, Nance PW. Surgical treatment of pressure injuries: 20-year experience. Arch Phys Med Rehab 2000;81(12):1556-1562.

Schubart J. An E-learning program to prevent pressure injuries in adults with spinal cord injury: A pre- and post- pilot test among rehabilitation patients following discharge to home. Ostomy Wound Management 2012;58(10):38-49.

Schubart JR, Hilgart M, Lyder C. Pressure injury prevention and management in spinal cord-injured adults: analysis of educational needs. Adv Skin Wound Care 2008;21(7):322-329.

Scivoletto G, Fuoco U, Morganti B, Cosentino E, Molinari M. Pressure sores and blood and serum dysmetabolism in spinal cord injury patients. Spinal Cord 2004;42(8):473-476.

Scovil CY, Flett HM, McMillan LT, Delparte JJ, Leber DJ, Brown J, et al. The application of implementation science for pressure injury prevention best practices in an inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation program. J Spinal Cord Med 2014.

Sell SA, Ericksen JJ, Reis TW, Droste LR, Bhuiyan MB,  Gater DR. A case report on the use of sustained release platelet-rich plasma for the treatment of chronic pressure injuries. The Journ of Spinal Cord Med 2011;34(1):122.

Shea JD. Pressure sores classification and management. Clin Ortho and Related Research 1975;112(1):89-100.

Sheppard R, Kennedy P, Mackey CA. Theory of planned behaviour, skin care and pressure sores following spinal cord injury. Journ Clin Psychol Med Settings. 2006;13(4):359-367.

Sherman RA, Wyle F, Vulpe M. Maggot therapy for treating pressure injuries in spinal cord injury patients. Journ Spinal Cord Med 1995;18(2):71-74.

Sherman RA. Maggot versus conservative debridement therapy for the treatment of pressure injuries. Wound Repair Regen 2002;10(4):208-214.

Singh R., Singh R, Rohilla RK, Siwach R, Verma V,  Kaur K. Surgery for pressure injuries improves general health and quality of life in patients with spinal cord injury. The Jour of Spinal Cord Med 2010;33(4):396.

Singh R, Rohilla RK, Dhayal RK, Sen R, Sehgal PK. Role of local application of autologous platelet-rich plasma in the management of pressure ulcers in spinal cord injury patients. Spinal cord. 2014;52(11):809-16.

Singh R, Dhayal RJ, Sehgal PK, Rohilla RK. To Evaluate Antimicrobial Properties of Platelet Rich Plasma and Source of Colonization in Pressure Ulcers in Spinal Injury Patients. Ulcers. 2015:1-7.

Smit CA, Haverkamp GL, de Groot S, Stolwijk-Swuste JM, Janssen TW. Effects of electrical stimulation-induced gluteal versus gluteal and hamstring muscles activation on sitting pressure distribution in persons with a spinal cord injury. Spinal cord 2012;50(8):590-594.

Smit CA, Zwinkels M, van Dijk T, de Groot S, Stolwijk-Swuste JM, Janssen TW. Gluteal blood flow and oxygenation during electrical stimulation-induced muscle activation versus pressure relief movements in wheelchair users with a spinal cord injury. Spinal cord 2013;51(9):694-699.

Smit CA, Legemate KJ, de Koning A, de Groot S, Stolwijk-Swuste JM, Janssen,TW. Prolonged electrical stimulation-induced gluteal and hamstring muscle activation and sitting pressure in spinal cord injury: Effect of duty cycle. Journ of Rehab Res Dev 2013;50(7):1035-1046.

Smith APS, Kieswetter K, Goodwin AL, McNulty AK. Negative pressure wound therapy. In: Krasner DL, Rodeheaver GT, Sibbald RG, editors. Chronic wound care: A clinical source book for healthcare professionals (pp. 271-286). Malvern, PA: HMP Communications. 2007.

Smith BM, Guihan M, LaVela SL, Garber SL. Factors predicting pressure injuries in veterans with spinal cord injuries. Amer Journ of Phys Med and Rehab 2008;87(9):750-757.

Sopher R, Nixon J, Gorecki C, Gefen A. Effects of intramuscular fat infiltration, scarring, and spasticity on the risk for sitting-acquired deep tissue injury in spinal cord injury patients. Journ Biomechan Eng 2011;133(2):021011.

Spivak JL. Iron and the anemia of chronic disease. Oncology (Williston Park) 2002;16(9):25-33.

Spungen AM, Koehler KM, Modeste-Duncan R, Rasul M, Cytryn AS, Bauman WA. 9 clinical cases of nonhealing pressure injuries in patients with spinal cord injury treated with an anabolic agent: a therapeutic trial. Adv Skin Wound Care 2001;14:139-144.

Srivastava A, Gupta A, Taly AB, Murali T. Surgical management of pressure injuries during inpatient neurologic rehabilitation: outcomes for patients with spinal cord disease. Journ of Spinal Cord Med 2009;32(2):125.

Srivastava RN, Dwivedi MK, Bhagat AK, Raj S, Agarwal R, Chandra A. A non-randomised, controlled clinical trial of an innovative device for negative pressure wound therapy of pressure ulcers in traumatic paraplegia patients. International wound journal. 2016;13(3):343-8.

Stefanovska A, Vodovnik L, Benko H, Turk R. Treatment of chronic wounds by means of electric and electromagnetic fields. Part 2. Value of FES parameters for pressure sore treatment. Med Biol Eng Comput 1993;31(3):213-220.

Stinson M, Schofield R, Gillan C, Morton J, Gardner E, Sprigle S, et al. Spinal cord injury and pressure injury prevention: using functional activity in pressure relief. Nurs Res Prac 2013;860396.

Stotts NA, Wipke-Tevis DD, Hopf HW. Cofactors in impaired wound healing. In: Krasner DL, Rodeheaver GT, Sibbald RG, editors. Chronic wound care: A clinical source book for healthcare professionals (pp. 215-220). Malvern, PA: HMP Communications. 2007.

Subbanna PK, Margaret Shanti FX, George J, Tharion G, Neelakantan N, Durai S, et al. Topical phenytoin solution for treating pressure injuries: A prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical trial. Spinal Cord 2007;45(11):739-743.

Sundby ØH, Irgens I, Høiseth LØ, Mathiesen I, Lundgaard E, Haugland H, et al. Intermittent mild negative pressure applied to the lower limb in patients with spinal cord injury and chronic lower limb ulcers: a crossover pilot study. Spinal cord. 2018;56(4):372-81.

Tadiparthi S, Hartley A, Alzweri L, Mecci M, Siddiqui H. Improving outcomes following reconstruction of pressure sores in spinal injury patients: A multidisciplinary approach. Journal of plastic, reconstructive & aesthetic surgery : JPRAS. 2016;69(7):994-1002.

Taghipoor KD, Arejan RH, Rasouli MR, Saadat S, Moghadam M, Vaccaro AR, et al. Factors associated with pressure injuries in patients with complete or sensory-only preserved spinal cord injury: is there any difference between traumatic and nontraumatic causes? Clinical article. Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine 2009;11(4):438-444.

Takechi H, Tokuhiro A. Evaluation of wheelchair cushions by means of pressure distribution mapping. Acta Medica Okayama 1998;52(5):245-254.

Taly AB, Sivaraman Nair KP, Murali T, John A. Efficacy of multiwavelength light therapy in the treatment of pressure injuries in subjects with disorders of the spinal cord: A randomized double-blind controlled trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004;85(10):1657-1661.

Tavakoli K, Rutkowski S, Cope C, Hassall M, Barnett R, Richards M, Vandervord J. Recurrence rates of ischial sores in para-and tetraplegics treated with hamstring flaps: an 8-year study. British Journ of Plast Surg 1999;52(6):476-479.

Thietje R, Giese R, Pouw M, Kaphengst C, Hosman A, Kienast B, et al. How does knowledge about spinal cord injury-related complications develop in subjects with spinal cord injury? A descriptive analysis in 214 patients. Spinal Cord 2011;49(1):43–48.

Thomas DR. Does pressure cause pressure injuries? An inquiry into the etiology of pressure injuries. Journ of the Amer Med Directors Association 2010;11(6):397-405.

Turba RM, Lewis VL, Green D. Pressure sore anemia: response to erythropoietin. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1992;73(5):498-500.

Tzen YT, Brienza DM, Karg PE,  Loughlin PJ. Effectiveness of local cooling for enhancing tissue ischemia tolerance in people with spinal cord injury. The journal of spinal cord medicine, 2013;36(4):357-364.

Unal C, Ozdemir J, Yirmibesoglu O, Yucel E,  Agir H. Use of inferior gluteal artery and posterior thigh perforators in management of ischial pressure sores with limited donor sites for flap coverage. Annals of Plast Surg 2012;69(1)-67-72.

Vair A, Keast D, LeMesurier A. The Prevalence of Anemia of Chronic Disease in Patients With Spinal Cord Injuries and Pressure Ulcers and the Impact of Erythropoietin Supplementation on Wound Healing: A Descriptive Pilot Study. Ostomy/wound management. 2015;61(6):16-26.

Van Anholt RD, Sobotka L, Meijer EP, Heyman H, Groen HW, Topinková E, et al. Specific nutritional support accelerates pressure injury healing and reduces wound care intensity in non-malnourished patients. Nutrition 2013;26(9):867-872.

Van Lis MS, van Asbeck FW, Post MW. Monitoring healing of pressure injuries: a review of assessment instruments for use in the spinal cord unit. Spinal Cord 2009;48(2):92-99.

van Londen A, Herwegh M, van der Zee CH, Daffertshofer A, Smit CA, Niezen A, Janssen TW. The effect of surface electric stimulation of the gluteal muscles on the interface pressure in seated people with spinal cord injury.Arch of Phys Med and Rehab 2008;89(9): 1724-1732.

Verschueren JH, Post MW, De Groot S, Van der Woude LH, Van Asbeck FW, Rol M. Occurrence and predictors of pressure injuries during primary in-patient spinal cord injury rehabilitation. Spinal Cord 2010;49(1):106-112.

Verveld CJ, Fuchs SP, Buncamper ME, Winters HA. The tunnelled lower leg fillet flap, a reconstructive salvage option in patients with severe pressure ulcers. Journal of plastic, reconstructive & aesthetic surgery : JPRAS. 2014;67(3):427-8.

Vesmarovich S, Walker T, Hauber RP, Temkin A, Burns R. Use of telerehabilitation to manage pressure injuries in persons with spinal cord injuries. Adv Wound Care 1999;12(5):264-269.

Vidal J, Sarrias M. An analysis of the diverse factors concerned with the development of pressure sores in spinal cord injured patients. Paraplegia 1991;29(4):261-267.

Vilter RW. Nutritional aspects of ascorbic acid: uses and abuses.Western Journal of Medicine 1980;133(6):485.

Walter JS, Sacks J, Othman R, Rankin AZ, Nemchausky B, Chintam R, & Wheeler JS. A database of self-reported secondary medical problems among VA spinal cord injury patients: its role in clinical care and management.Journ of Rehab Research and Develop 2002;39(1):53-62.

Wang SY, Wang JN, Lv DC, Diao YP,  Zhang Z. Clinical research on the bio-debridement effect of maggot therapy for treatment of chronically infected lesions. Orthop Surg 2010;2(3):201-206.

Wellard S, Lo SK. Comparing Norton, Braden and Waterlow risk assessment scales for pressure injuries in spinal cord injuries. Contemporary Nurs 2000;9(2):155-160.

Wettstein R, Tremp M, Baumberger M, Schaefer DJ, Kalbermatten DF. Local flap therapy for the treatment of pressure sore wounds. International wound journal. 2015;12(5):572-6.

Whittle H, Fletcher C, Hoskin A, Campbell K. Nursing management of pressure injuries using a hydrogel dressing protocol: four case studies. Rehabil Nurs 1996;21(5):239-242.

Wilczweski P, Grimm D, Gianakis A, Gill B, Sarver W,  McNett M. Risk factors associated with pressure injury development in critically ill traumatic spinal cord injury patients. Journ of Trauma Nurs 2012;19(1):5-10.

Wolfe D, Mills S, Shepherd J, Craven C and the E-Scan Investigative Team. Informed self-management.  In C. Craven, M Verrier, Balioussis, D Wolfe, J Hsieh, V Noonan, A Rasheed, E Cherban, editors, Rehabilitation environmental scan atlas: Capturing capacity in Canadian SCI rehabilitation (pp. 159-166). Vancouver, BC: Rick Hansen Institute. 2012.

Yusmido YA, Hisamud-Din N, Mazlan M. Elective proximal lower limb amputation in spinal cord injury patients with chronic pressure ulcers: improve quality of life, function, and shorten hospital stay. Case report. European journal of physical and rehabilitation medicine. 2014;50(5):557-60.

Zoutman D, McDonald S, Vethanayagan D. Total and attributable costs of surgical wound infections at a Canadian tertiary care centre. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1998;19(4):254-259.