According to one study, intrathecal baclofen as first-line therapy for disabling spasticity for severely impaired individuals had lower treatment costs and better outcomes (improved patient and caregiver satisfaction according to goal attainment scaling and at least 1-point reduction in Ashworth score) over a 2 year period when compared to the current treatment pattern of care in France at the time of model construction.
In one study, clean non-coated catheter (replaced weekly) was the most cost-effective intervention compared to the same intervention replaced daily, one-time use sterile non-coated catheters, hydrophilic catheters and gel reservoir catheters. This is based on a decision-maker’s willingness to pay threshold of £20,000-30,000.
In a single study, transanal irrigation was observed to be less costly than conservative bowel management when caregiver cost for bowel management and patient time over 2-days and better clinical outcomes (St Mark’s fecal incontinence score, Cleveland Clinic constipation score and neurogenic bowel dysfunction score) over 10 weeks.
Based on one study, the implementation of duplex ultrasound for deep venous thrombosis surveillance would result in a cost per life year gained of between $1,193 and $9,050 depending on age and type of injury.
In one study, sildenafil had lower cost and better outcomes than intracavernous injections, suppositories and surgery. Cost per QALY was $9,656/QALY for Triple Mix intercavernous injections and $13,399/QALY for vacuum erection device.
For a single study, over a one year timeframe, electrical stimulation in addition to standard wound care had lower costs and greater number of wounds healed.
The mean hospital cost for traumatic SCI in Australia is approximately $42,000 for initial hospitalization and $20,500 for subsequent hospitalizations; for non-traumatic SCI it is approximately $46,600 for initial hospitalization and $33,200 for subsequent hospitalizations.
In Belgium, mean cost for inpatient and outpatient rehabilitation is approximately $33,000 and $5,700 for paraplegia and approximately $51,000 and $7,700 for tetraplegia, respectively.
In Canada, mean costs range between $28,000 to $260,000 for initial hospitalization, $270,000 to $40,000 in the first year and $12,000 to $97,000 for following years depending on type of injury. Total mean cost of inpatient rehabilitation is approximately $198,000 for SCI and is increased to approximately $257,000 if the patient also has a TBI. Total mean annual cost per individual with SCI in Ontario is approximately $180,000.
The direct out-of-pocket cost for conservative SCI management in Nigeria is approximately $270 and $1,530 for lost income and vehicle repair/replacement.
Total mean lifetime cost for an individual with a SCI that is a result of a motor crash is approximately $165,000 and $175,000 from other causes in Spain.
In the US, mean costs are approximately $250,000 for first year, and $77,000 for following years. Mean costs range from approximately $138,000 to $476,000 in first year and $38,000 to $169,000 in following years depending on location and severity of injury. Estimated lifetime costs for an individual injured at 25 years old is approximately between $898,000 to $3 million and for an individual injured at 50 years old, approximately between $678,000 to $1.7 million depending on location and severity of injury.