Cellular therapy is a relatively new treatment option, which contributes to significant advancements in technology and genetic research (Vaquero et al. 2017). Cell transplantation with mesenchymal stromal cells via injection into the site of the syrinx shows potential in the future treatment of syringomyelia without surgery (Vaquero et al. 2017).
To our knowledge, only one study has examined the use of cellular therapies for the treatment of syringomyelia. Vaquero et al. (2018) had a small patient sample of six, however they were able to observe strong improvements in spinal cord function at three and six months post-injection. Unfortunately, in terms of outcomes measuring bladder and bowel dysfunction no significant differences were reported. More studies are required on the use of cellular therapy as a potential non-surgical treatment for syringomyelia before any substantial conclusions can be drawn.
Cellular therapies have been used to improve various functional outcomes in individuals with SCI (Oraee-Yazdani et al. 2021). A recent study by Oraee-Yazdani and colleagues (2021) assessed the safety of intrathecal co-transplantation of autologous bone marrow mesenchymal and schwann cells in patients with subacute traumatic complete SCI. Radiological images revealed no presence of syringomyelia at 6- month and 12-month post-intervention.
There is level 4 evidence (from one pre-post study: Vaquero et al., 2018a) that mesenchymal stromal cell therapy may be effective in improving spinal cord function post-SCI.
There is level 4 evidence (from one pre-post study: Oraee-Yazdani et al. 2021) that intrathecal co-transplantation of autologous bone marrow mesenchymal and schwann cells does not result in adverse events, such as syringomyelia, in individuals with subacute traumatic complete SCI.