This chapter reviewed the etiology, incidence, and prevalence of pediatric SCI. Not surprisingly, the majority of studies on the incidence, prevalence, and etiology of pediatric SCI have been conducted in Europe and North America, highlighting the need for more research in non-Western countries. Based on the findings from existing literature, our review suggests that both traumatic and non-traumatic SCI are relatively rare across the globe. In terms of the etiology of pediatric SCI, transport accidents are the most common cause of traumatic SCI in children, and acute flaccid myelitis is the most common cause of non-traumatic SCI in this population. Furthermore, regardless of etiology, males are more likely than females to suffer serious injury, and younger children are more likely to experience injury to the cervical spine than older children and adolescents. Studies also indicate that there may be a connection between race and SCI incidence. These may have important implications for the treatment and prevention of pediatric SCI. Studying the epidemiology of pediatric SCI allows researchers and clinicians to better understand injury trends over the years, and enables them to develop new safety measures and guidelines to protect children involved in sports, riding in vehicles, and living in potentially unsafe home environments. While not all SCIs are avoidable, it is crucial for the public and health professionals to take necessary precautions to minimize the risks and mitigate the impact of pediatric SCI.