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Summary

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There is level 4 evidence (from one case series study; Wood et al. 2014) that pseudoephedrine may be an effective adjuvant for the treatment of neurogenic shock in acute SCI patients; however, this pharmacological agent may require up to one month for effectiveness.

 

There is level 2 evidence (from one PCT; Phillips et al. 2014a) that midodrine may lead to increased blood pressure and reduced heart rate in SCI populations compared to health controls.

 

There is level 2 evidence (from one RCT, one PCT and one pre-post; Tesini et al. 2013; Elokda et al. 2000; Sampson et al. 2000) that tilt tables in combination with functional electrical stimulation can effectively raise blood pressure in an SCI population, but not with tilt tables alone.

 

There is level 4 evidence (from one pre-post study; Daunoraviciene et al. 2018) that tilt table verticalization can significantly lower cardiovascular parameters in SCI patients.

 

There is level 2 evidence (from one RCT crossover; Phillips et al. 2014) that midodrine hydrochloride leads to improved orthostatic tolerance in acute SCI patients.

 

There is level 2 evidence (from one PCT; Krstacic et al. 2016) that methylprednisolone may have no effects on heart rate variability in SCI populations.

 

There is level 4 evidence (from two pre-post studies; Vale et al. 1997; Levi et al. 1993) that aggressive hemodynamic support in acute SCI patients is associated with improved neurological function.

 

There is level 3 evidence (from one case control; Evans et al. 2014) that oral albuterol reduces bradycardic episodes in acute SCI patients.

 

There is level 4 evidence (from two case series; Moerman et al. 2011; Franga et al. 2006) that cardiac pacemaker implantation eliminates bradycardic events in acute SCI patients.