Other Pharmaceutical Treatments for Bladder Emptying

Author Year
Research Design
Total Sample Size



Grijalva et al. 2010
Phase 1: RCT; N=14
Phase 2: Pre-Post; N=12

Population: AIS A; Mean age=29 yr; male=10, female=4; Level of injury: C=7, T=7; Time since injury=6.21 yr.

Treatment: 30 mg of 4-aminopyridine per day.

Outcome Measures: Scores of the ASIA motor and sensory scales, the SCIM, sphincter control and somatosensory evoked potentials.

  1. 3 patients were able to walk without assistance and 1 patient changed to an incomplete injury.
  2. In terms of bladder sensation and control, 5 patients reported an improvement while 4 out of 9 male patients had psychogenic erection.
  3. 7 patients showed improvement in somatosensory evoked potentials.
  4. 1 patient suffered epileptic seizures and another had persistent anxiety and insomnia.

Reitz et al. 2004

Population: Mean age: 32 yr (range 29-36 yr); Gender: males=12, females=0.

Treatment: Following a bladder emptying by clean intermittent catheterization (n=6) and suprapubic tapping (n=6), patients were sublingually administered 10 mg of isosorbide dinitrate.

Outcome Measures: Maximal bladder pressure, external urethral sphincter pressure, reflex volume, and residual volume.

  1. External urethral sphincter pressure at both rest and dyssynergic contraction reduced significantly after nitric oxide treatment (p<0.05; p<0.05); however, bladder pressures at rest and during contraction as well as reflex volume remain unchanged.
  2. In the patients who used suprapubic tapping for bladder emptying the mean post triggering residual volume was significantly reduced (p<0.05).