Electrical Stimulation to Enhance Bladder Volumes
Electrical stimulation, most notably anterior sacral root stimulation, has been used to enhance bladder volume and induce voiding (Egon et al. 1998; Brindley et al. 1982). Typically, this approach has involved concomitant dorsal sacral rhizotomy and implantation of a sacral nerve stimulator. The combined effect of this is a more compliant bladder, enhanced storage capacity under lower pressure, and triggered voiding resulting in reduced incontinence; without the need to catheterize. As the focus of many of the studies involving electrical stimulation is both increased bladder capacity and control of bladder emptying, we will describe the evidence for these and other methods of electrical stimulation for improving bladder outcomes in a single subsequent subsection, Electrical Stimulation for Bladder Emptying (and Enhancing Volumes).