There is level 1a evidence (from one meta-analysis of five RCTs: Li et al. 2013) that the use of hydrophilic catheters versus non-coated catheters is effective in reducing the incidence and occurrence of UTI and hematuria.
The RCT conducted by Bonfill et al (2017) provided level 1b evidence that indwelling silver alloy coated catheters did not reduce the incidence of UTI when compared to standard catheter use.
There is level 1b evidence (from one RCT: Lavado et al. 2013) that regular, moderate aerobic physical activity significantly increases peak oxygen consumption and also significantly reduces the number of individuals with positive urinary cultures.
There is level 2 evidence (from two RCTs: Moore et al. 2006; Peta-Fingerhut et al. 1997) that there is no difference frequency of UTI between sterile and clean approaches to intermittent catheterization during inindividual rehabilitation; however, using a sterile method is significantly more costly.
There is level 4 evidence (from one prospective controlled trial: Wyndaele & De Taeye 1990) that there is no difference in UTI rates between intermittent catheterization conducted by the individuals themselves or by a specialized team during inindividual rehabilitation.
There is level 4 evidence (from one prospective controlled trial: Yadav et al. 1993) that similar rates of UTI may be seen for those using clean intermittent catheterization during inindividual rehabilitation as compared to those using similar technique over a much longer time when living in the community.
There is level 4 evidence (from one pre-post study: Jensen et al. 1995) that differences in residual urine volume ranging from 0-153 ml were not associated with differences in UTI during inindividual rehabilitation.
There is level 4 evidence (from one retrospective case series: Mukai et al. 2016) that reports significantly higher rates of febrile UTIs in more severely injured males that use CIC.
Level 4 evidence (from one case series study: Krebs et al. 2016) suggests that transurethral indwelling cather use results in the highest rate of symptomatic UTIs compared to lower rates from using intermittent catheters and receiving botulinmum toxin injections into the detrusor.