+100%-

Impact

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It has been estimated that 53% (Walter et al. 2002) to 78% (Adams & Hicks 2005; Maynard et al. 1990; Levi et al. 1995) of individuals report spasticity secondary to chronic SCI. Spasticity has been reported to be more frequent in cervical and incomplete injuries (Mumtaz et al. 2014). Approximately 41% (Levi et al. 1995) of individuals with spasticity secondary to SCI list it as one of the major medical obstacles to community and workplace re-integration (Canadian Paraplegic Association 1996). Although, spasticity is not typically thought to get worse with age and time, uncontrolled spasticity is thought to have an impact on emotional adaptation, dependency, secondary health problems and environmental integration (Krause 2007).