Detrusor External Sphincter Dyssynergia Therapy: Enhancing Bladder Volumes Pharmacologically
Anticholinergic Therapy for SCI-Related Detrusor Overactivity
Propiverine, oxybutynin, tolterodine and trospium chloride are efficacious anticholinergic agents for the treatment of SCI neurogenic bladder.
Treatment with two of oxybutynin, tolterodine or trospium may be effective for the treatment of SCI neurogenic bladder in those not previously responding to one of these medications.
Tolterodine, propiverine (particularly the extended-release formula), or transdermal application of oxybutinin likely result in less dry mouth but are similarly efficacious to oral oxybutynin in terms of improving neurogenic detrusor overactivity. Cisapride is not an effective treatment for hyperreflexic bladders in individuals with SCI.
Toxin Therapy for SCI-Related Destrusor Overactivity
Onabotulinum toxin type A injections into the detrusor muscle improve neurogenic destrusor overactivity and urge incontinence; it may also reduce destrusor contractility. Vanillanoid compounds such as capsaicin or resiniferatoxin increase maximum bladder capacity, and decreases urinary frequency, leakages, and pressure in neurogenic detrusor overactivity.
Intravesical capsaicin instillation in bladders of individuals with SCI does not increase the rate of common bladder cancers after 5 years of use.
Nociceptin/orphanin phenylalanine glutamine, a nociceptin orphan peptide receptor agonist, may be considered for the treatment of neurogenic bladder in SCI.
Intravesical Instillations for SCI-Related Detrusor Overactivity
Both propantheline and oxybutynin intravesical instillations improve cystometric parameters in patients with SCI and neuropathic bladder, but propantheline provides superior improvement in more parameters.
Catheterization combined with intravesical instillation of oxybutynin alone or in addition to oral oxybutynin is effective in improving the symptoms of neuropathic bladder in individuals with SCI.
For individuals with SCI and neuropathic bladder, capsaicin can improve leak volume and frequency but can also worsen residual volume and cystometric capacity as well as induce hyperreflexia.
Intravesical instillation of oxybutynin is ineffective for male patients with SCI who have an implanted Brindley anterior root stimulator
Other Pharmaceutical Treatment for SCI-Related Detrusor Overactivity
Tadalafil, vardenafil, intrathecal baclofen, and clonidine may be beneficial for bladder function improvement but further confirmatory evidence is needed.
Detrusor External Sphincter Dyssynergia Therapy: Enhancing Bladder Volumes Non-Pharmacologically
Surgical Augmentation of the Bladder to Enhance Volume
Surgical augmentation of bladder may result in enhanced bladder capacity under lower filling pressure and improved continence in persons with SCI. Extraperitoneal versus intraperitoneal augmentation enterocystoplasty may result in better postoperative recovery.
Detrusor External Sphincter Dyssynergia Therapy: Enhancing Bladder Emptying Pharmacologically
Alpha-adrenergic Blockers for Bladder Emptying
Tamsulosin may improve urine flow in SCI individuals with bladder neck dysfunction. Mosixylyte is likely able to decrease maximum urethral closure pressure at a dose of 0.75mg/kg in individuals with SCI.
Terazosin may be an alternative treatment for bladder neck dysfunction in individuals with SCI. but side effects and drug tolerance should be monitored.
Phenoxybenzamine may be useful as an adjunct therapy for reducing residual urine volume in SCI neuropathic bladders maintained by crede or tapping.
Six months of alpha 1-blocker therapy in male SCI patients may improve upper tract stasis.
Botulinum Toxin for Bladder Emptying
Botulinum toxin injected into the sphincter is effective in assisting with bladder emptying for persons with neurogenic bladder due to SCI.
Other Pharmaceutical Treatments for Bladder Emptying
Isosorbide dinitrate may improve control of the bladder post SCI; although, more evidence is needed to support this as a treatment option.
4-Aminopyridine at sufficient dosage may return sensation and control of the bladder sphincter following SCI; more evidence is needed to support this as a treatment option.
Detrusor External Sphincter Dyssynergia Therapy: Enhancing Bladder Emptying Non-Pharmacologically
Comparing Methods of Conservative Bladder Emptying
Supervised sequential conservative bladder management is may result in favourable urological complication rates.
Severity of injury and urinary sensation could be predictive parameters for future voiding function.
Intermittent catheterization, whether performed acutely or chronically, may have the lowest complication rate.
Indwelling catheterization, whether suprapubic or urethral or whether conducted acutely or chronically, may result in a higher long-term rate of urological and renal complications than other management methods.
Persons with tetraplegia and complete injuries, and to a lesser degree females, may have difficulty in maintaining compliance with intermittent catheterization procedures following discharge from rehabilitation.
Bladder management via suprapubic catheterization may be the better option for patients that are high tetraplegics and respirator-dependent.
Urethral complications and epididymoorchitis occur more frequently in those using intermittent catheterization programs.
Portable ultrasound device can improve the scheduling of intermittent catheterizations. Although both pre-lubricated and hydrophilic catheters have been associated with reduced incidence of UTIs as compared to conventional PVC catheters, less urethral microtrauma with their use may only be seen with pre-lubricated catheters.
Compact catheters are more discrete than standard catheters for carrying and disposal but offer comparable performance in bladder emptying and residual urine volumes.
Triggering-Type or Expression Voiding Methods of Bladder Management
Valsalva or Crede maneuver may assist some individuals to void spontaneously but produce high intra-vesical pressure, increasing the risk for long-term complications.
Indwelling Catheterization (Urethral or Suprapubic)
With diligent care and ongoing medical follow-up, indwelling urethral and suprapubic catheterization may be an effective and satisfactory bladder management choice for some people, though there is insufficient evidence to report lifelong safety of such a regime.
Compared to non-indwelling methods, indwelling catheter users are at higher risk of bladder cancer, especially in the second decade of use, though risk also increases during the first decade of use.
Patients using condom drainage should be monitored for complete emptying and for low pressure drainage to reduce UTI and upper tract deterioration; sphincterotomy may eventually be required.
Penile implants may allow easier use of condom catheters and reduce incontinence.
Continent Catheterizable Stoma and Incontinent Urinary Diversion
Catheterizable abdominal stomas may increase the likelihood of achieving continence and independence in self-catherization, and may result in a bladder management program that offers more optimal upper tract protection.
Cutaneous ileal conduit diversion may increase the likelihood of achieving continence but may also be associated with a high incidence of various long-term complications.
Electrical Stimulation for Bladder Emptying and Enhancing Volumes
Sacral anterior root stimulation (accompanied in most cases by posterior sacral rhizotomy) enhances bladder function and is an effective bladder management technique though the program (surgery and follow-up) requires significant expertise. Direct bladder stimulation may be effective in reducing incontinence and increasing bladder capacity but requires further study.
Posterior sacral, pudenal, dorsal penile or clitoral nerve stimulation may be effective to increase bladder capacity but requires further study.
Early sacral neural modulation may improve management of lower urinary tract dysfunction but requires further study.
Epidural dorsal spinal cord stimulation (T1 or T11) and functional electrical stimulation of the lower limbs are not effective in enhancing bladder function.
Sphincterotomy, Artificial Sphincters, Stents and Related Approaches for Bladder Emptying
Surgical and prosthetic approaches (with a sphincterotomy and stent respectively) to allow bladder emptying through a previously dysfunctional external sphincter both seem equally effective resulting in enhanced drainage although both may result in long-term upper and lower urinary tract complications.
Artificial urinary sphincter implantation and transurethral balloon dilation of the external sphincter may be associated with improved bladder outcomes but require further study.
Transobturator tape implantation is not effective for SCI-related neurogenic stress incontinence and results in high complication rates.
Detrusor External Sphincter Dyssynergia Therapy: Other Miscellaneous Treatments
Early electroacupuncture therapy as adjunctive therapy may result in decreased time to achieve desired outcomes.
Intranasal DDVAP may reduce nocturnal urine emissions and decrease the frequency of voids (or catheterizations).
Anastomosis of the T11, L5 or S1 to the S2-S3 spinal nerve roots may result in improved bladder function in chronic SCI.
Urinary Tract Infections: Detecting and Investigating Urinary Tract Infections
Both limited and full microbial investigation may result in adequate clinical response to UTI treatment with antibiotics.
Indwelling or suprapubic catheters should be changed just prior to urine collection so as to limit the amount of false positive urine tests.
Urinalysis and urine culture results of SCI patients are not likely to be affected by sample refrigeration (up to 24 hours).
It is uncertain if dipstick testing for nitrates or leukocyte esterase is useful in screening for bacteriuria to assist treatment decision-making.
Urinary Tract Infections: Non-Pharmacological Methods of Preventing UTIs
Intermittent Catheterization and Prevention of UTIs
Sterile and clean approaches to intermittent catheterization seem equally effective in minimizing UTIs in inpatient rehabilitation.
Similar rates of UTI may be seen with intermittent catheterization as conducted by the patients themselves or by a specialized team during inpatient rehabilitation.
Similar rates of UTI may be seen with intermittent catheterization, whether conducted in the short-term during inpatient rehabilitation or in the long-term while living in the community.
UTIs were not associated with differences in residual urine volumes after intermittent catheterization.
Specially Covered Intermittent Catheters for Preventing UTI
A reduced incidence of UTIs or reduced antibiotic treatment of symptomatic UTIs have been associated with pre-lubricated or hydrophilic catheters as compared to standard non-hydrophilic catheters.
Other Issues Associated with Bladder Management and UTI Prevention
Intermittent catheterization is associated with a lower rate of UTI as compared to use of indwelling or suprapubic catheter.
The Statlock device to secure indwelling and suprapubic catheters may lead to a lower rate of UTI.
Removal of external condom drainage collection systems at night or for 24 hours/day may reduce perineal, urethral or rectal bacterial levels but has no effect on bacteriuria. The presence of vesicoureteral reflux likely has a greater impact on development of significant infections than the choice of bladder management.
Urinary Tract Infections: Pharmacological and Other Biological Methods of UTI Prevention
Bacterial Interference for Prevention of UTIs
E. coli 83972 bladder inoculation may prevent UTIs.
E.coli HU2117 bladder inoculation may prevent UTIs.
Antibiotic Prophylaxis of UTIs
Ciprofloxacin may be indicated for UTI prophylaxis in SCI but further research is needed to support its use.
Long-term use of TMP-SMX is not recommended for sustained use as a suppressive therapy for UTI prevention.
A weekly oral cyclic antibiotic, customized to the individual, may be beneficial in preventing UTI in SCI.
Antiseptic and Related Approaches for Preventing UTIs
Daily body washing with chlorohexidine and application of chlorhexidine cream to the penis after every catheterization instead of using standard soap may reduce bacteriuria and perineal colonization.
The antiseptic agents delivered via bladder irrigation (5% hemiacidrin solution combined with oral methenamine mandelate) may be effective for UTI prevention, whereas others are not (i.e., trisdine, kanamycin-colistin, neomycin/polymyxin, acetic acid, ascorbic acid and phosphate supplementation).
Oral methenamine hippurate, either alone or in combination with cranberry, is not effective for UTI prevention.
Botulinum toxin type A (300 U) injected into the detrusory may prevent UTIs in individuals with neurodetrusor overactivity.
Cranberry for Preventing UTIs
It is uncertain if cranberry is effective in preventing UTIs in persons with SCI.
Urinary Tract Infections: Educational Interventions for Maintaining a Healthy Bladder and Preventing UTIs.
A variety of bladder management education programs are effective in reducing UTI risk in community-dwelling persons with SCI, although limited information exists as to which is the most effective approach.
Urinary Tract Infections: Pharmacological Treatment of UTIs
Ciprofloxin administered over 14 days (versus 3 days) may result in improved clinical and microbiological SCI UTI treatment outcome.
Ofloxacin administered over either a 3 or 7 day treatment regimen may result in significant SCI UTI cure and bladder bacterial biofilm eradication rate, moreso than trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.
Norfloxacin may be a reasonable treatment choice for UTI in SCI but subsequent resistance must be monitored.
Aminoglycosides have a low success rate in the treatment of SCI UTI.
Intermittent neomycin/polymyxin bladder irrigation may be effective in altering the resistance of the offending bladder organism(s) to allow for appropriate antibiotic treatment.