Functional Standing Test (FST)

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Tool Description

  • Assesses an individual’s ability to perform one handed reaching tasks while standing.
  • Consists of 21 tasks which involve performing both gross and fine motor skills; crossing midline; and lifting and lowering light and heavy objects. Examples of tasks include: lifting light objects down from the lowest shelf; stacking checkers on the counter top at the midline; lifting heavy objects up to the top shelf.

ICF Domain:

Activity – Subcategory: Mobility.

Number of Items:

21 (6 of which are the same as in the Jebsen Test of Hand Function)

Brief Instructions for Administration & Scoring


  • Tasks are done as quickly as possible and the individual is allowed to use assistive devices such as knee-ankle-foot-orthoses (KAFO) or functional neuromuscular stimulation.
  • The mean time to complete the entire test (i.e. total standing time) was 15.58 + 2.99 minutes. Time required for each task ranged from 1.86 to 13.70 seconds for individuals with SCI.


  • standard Jebsen Test board
  • a set of shelves mounted on a counter top 36 inches high (to simulate a kitchen cabinet).


  • time in minutes or seconds to complete each of the 21 tasks is recorded.


MCID: not established
SEM: not established
MDC: not established

  • No normative data or published data was found for the SCI population at this time.



Training Required:

Training is required to administer the test.


Unable to locate a copy of this measure at this time.

Clinical Considerations

  • The tasks simulate skills required to work in a kitchen environment but these skills are easily transferred to other environments (e.g. shopping). The tasks cover a broad range of difficulty.
  • The specialized equipment may limit its usefulness in some clinical/research settings.
  • Was originally developed using able-bodied individuals and has been modified for individuals with SCI. However, the only testing of the FST for SCI has been done in individuals with T3-6 injuries.

Measurement Property Summary

# of studies reporting psychometric properties: 1


  • Test-retest reliability of the FST items ranges from Low to High:
    • 3 items had Low reliability (ICC < 0.4)
    • 9 items had Moderate reliability (ICC < 0.75)
    • 12 items had High reliability (ICC > 0.75).

[Triolo et al. 1994]


  • ANOVAs performed indicated significant (P<.05) differences between SCI and able-bodied populations, which suggests that FST may be sensitive to various standing impairments.

[Triolo et al. 1994]


No values were reported for the responsiveness of the FST for the SCI population.

Floor/ceiling effect:

No values were reported for the presence of floor/ceiling effects in the FST for the SCI population.


Dr. William Miller, Christie Chan, Gita Manhas

Date Last Updated:

July 20, 2020

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Equipment Needed


Triolo RJ, Bevelheimer T, Eisenhower G, Wormser D. Inter-rater reliability of a clinical test of standing function. J Spinal Cord Med. 1994;18:14-22.