Alibrahim F, McIntyre A, Serrato J, Mehta S, Loh E, Teasell RW (2016). Heterotopic Ossification Following Spinal Cord Injury. In Eng JJ, Teasell RW, Miller WC, Wolfe DL, Townson AF, Hsieh JTC, Connolly SJ, Loh E, Sproule S, McIntyre A, Querée M, editors. Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Evidence. Version 6.0: p 1-20.
Heterotopic ossification (HO) is the formation of pathological bone in muscle or soft tissue. The incidence in individuals following a spinal cord injury (SCI) has been reported to vary greatly, ranging from 10% to 78% (Banovac 2001; van Kuijk et al. 2002, Ranganathan et al. 2015). HO occurs most frequently in the first two months after SCI, below the level of paralysis (Banovac et al. 2001) and most commonly forms in the hip but rarely in the peripheral joints (Ranganathan et al. 2015).