Ackery A, Tator C, Krassioukov A. A global perspective on spinal cord injury epidemiology. J Neurotrauma 2004; 21: 1355-1370.

Acton PA, Farley T, Freni LW, Ilegbodu VA, Sniezek JE, Wohlleb JC. Traumatic spinal cord injury in Arkansas, 1980 to 1989. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1993; 74: 1035-1040.

Ahoniemi E, Alaranta H, Hokkinen EM, Valtonen K, Kautiainen H. Incidence of traumatic spinal cord injuries in Finland over a 30-year period. Spinal Cord 2008; 46: 781-784.

Albert T, Ravaud JF, Tetrafigap group. Rehabilitation of spinal cord injury in France: a nationwide multicentre study of incidence and regional disparities. Spinal Cord 2005; 43: 357-365.

Alcanyis-Alberola M, Giner-Pascual M, Salinas-Huertas S, Gutierrez-Delgado M. Iatrogenic spinal cord injury: An observational study. Spinal Cord 2011; 49:1188-1192.

Alshahri SS, Cripps RA, Lee BB, Al-Jadid MS. Traumatic spinal cord injury in Saudi Arabia: an epidemiological estimate from Riyadh. Spinal Cord 2012; 50:882-884.

Aung TS, el Masry WS. Audit of a British Centre for spinal injury. Spinal Cord 1997; 35: 147-150.

Bensen M, Koenig KL, Schultz CH. Disaster triage: START, then SAVE a new method of dynamic triage for victims of a catastrophic earthquake. Prehosp Disaster Med. 1996; 11: 117-124.

Berry JG, Harrison JE, Yeo JD, Cripps RA, Stephenson SC. Cervical spinal cord injury in rugby union and rugby league: are incidence rates declining in NSW? Aust N Z J Public Health 2006; 30: 268-274.

Biering-Sorensen E, Pedersen V, Clausen S. Epidemiology of spinal cord lesions in Denmark. Paraplegia 1990; 28: 105-118.

Boden BP, Tacchetti RL, Cantu RC, Knowles SB, Mueller FO. Catastrophic cervical spine injuries in high school and college football players. Am J Sports Med 2006; 34: 1223-1232.

Bohu Y, Julia M, Bagate C, Peyrin J, Colonna J, Thoreux P, et al. Declining incidence of catastrophic cervical spine injuries in French rugby: 1996-2006. Am J Sports Med 2009; 37: 319-323.

Bracken MB, Freeman DH,Jr, Hellenbrand K. Incidence of acute traumatic hospitalized spinal cord injury in the United States, 1970-1977. Am J Epidemiol 1981; 113: 615-622.

Burke DC, Brown D, Hill V, Balian K, Araratian A, Vartanian C. The development of a spinal injuries unit in Armenia. Paraplegia 1993; 31: 168-171.

Burke DA, Linden RD, Zhang YP, Maiste AC, Shields CB. Incidence rates and populations at risk for spinal cord injury: a regional study. Spinal Cord 2001; 39: 274-278.

Burns AS, O’Connell C, Landry MD. Spinal cord injury in postearthquake Haiti: Lessons learned and future needs. American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2010; 2: 695-697.

Calancie B, Molano MR, Broton JG. Epidemiology and demography of acute spinal cord injury in a large urban setting. J Spinal Cord Med 2005; 28: 92-96.

Caldana L, Lucca L. Epidemiological remarks on traumatic spinal cord injuries and non- traumatic spinal cord diseases in Veneto 1994-1995. Europa Medicophysica 1998; 34: 159-168.

Cantu RC, Mueller FO. Catastrophic spine injuries in American football, 1977-2001. Neurosurgery 2003; 53: 358-362.

Carmody DJ, Taylor TK, Parker DA, Coolican MR, Cumming RG. Spinal cord injuries in Australian footballers 1997-2002. Med J Aust 2005; 182: 561-564.

Carroll CM. Spinal cord injuries in Arkansas due to violence: 1980-1989. Spinal Cord 1997; 35: 341-348.

Catz A, Thaleinsnik M, Fishel B, Ronen J, Spasser R, Fredman B, Shabtay E, Gepstein R. Survival following spinal cord injury in Israel. Spinal Cord 2002; 40: 595-598.

Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Trends in traumatic spinal cord injury–New York, 1982-1988. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1991; 40: 535-537; 543.

Chabok SY, Safaee M, Alizadeh A, Dafchahi MA, Taghinnejadi O, KoochakinejadL. Epidemiology of traumatic spinal injury: a descriptive study. Act Medica Iranica 2010; 48: 308-311.

Chang SM, Hou CL, Dong DQ, Zhang H. Urologic status of 74 spinal cord injury patients from the 1976 Tangshan earthquake, and managed for over 20 years using the Credé maneuver. Spinal Cord 2000; 38: 552-554.

Chen HY, Chiu WT, Chen SS, Lee LS, Hung CI, Hung CL, et al. A nationwide epidemiological study of spinal cord injuries in Taiwan from July 1992 to June 1996. Neurol Res 1997; 19: 617-622.

Chen CF, Lien IN. Spinal cord injuries in Taipei, Taiwan, 1978-1981. Paraplegia 1985; 23: 364-370.

Chen R, Song Y, Kong Q, Zhou C, Liu L. Analysis of 78 patients with spinal injuries in the 2008 Sichuan, China, earthquake. Orthopedics 2009; 32: 322.

Chhabra HS, Arora M. Demographic profile of traumatic spinal cord injuries admitted at Indian spinal Injuries Centre with special emphasis on mode of injury: a retrospective study. Spinal Cord 2012; 50:745-754.

Chiu WT, Lin HC, Lam C, Chu SF, Chiang YH, Tsai SH. Review paper: epidemiology of traumatic spinal cord injury: comparisons between developed and developing countries. Asia Pac J Public Health. 2010; 22:9-18.

Collier TR, Jones ML, Murray HH. Skimboarding: a new cause of water sport spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2010; 48: 349-351.

Correa GI, Finkelstein JM, Burnier LA, Danilla SE, Tapia LZ, Torres VN, Castillo JC. Work-related traumatic spinal cord lesions in Chile, a 20-year epidemiological analysis. Spinal Cord 2011; 49: 196-199.

Cosar SNS, Yemisci OU, Oztop P, Sarifakioglu B, Yalbuzdag SA, Ustaomer K, Karatas M. Demographic characteristics after traumatic and non-traumatic spinal cord injury: a retrospective comparison study. Spinal Cord 2010; 48: 862-866.

Couris CM, Guilcher SJT, Munce SEP, Fung K, Craven BC, Verrier M, Jaglal SB. Characteristics of adults with incident traumatics spinal cord injury in Ontario, Canada. Spinal Cord 2010; 48: 39-44.

Cripps RA, Lee BB, Wing P, Weerts E, Mackay J, Brown D. A global map for traumatic spinal cord injury epidemiology: towards a living data repository for injury prevention. Spinal Cord. 2011; 49: 493-501.

da Paz AC, Beraldo PS, Almeida MC, Neves EG, Alves CM, Khan P. Traumatic injury to the spinal cord. Prevalence in Brazilian hospitals. Paraplegia 1992; 30: 636-640.

Dahlberg A, Kotila M, Leppänen P, Kautiainen H, Alaranta H. Prevalence of spinal cord injury in Helsinki. Spinal Cord 2005; 43: 47-50.

Demetriades D, Charalambides K, Chahwan S, Henpeter D, Alo K, Velmahos G, et al. Nonskeletal cervical spine injuries: epidemiology and diagnostic pitfalls. J Trauma 2000; 48: 724-727.

Derrett S, Beaver C, Sullivan MJ, Herbison GP, Acland R, Paul C. Traumatic and non-traumatic spinal cord impairment in New Zealand: incidence and characteristics of people admitted to spinal units. Inj Prev 2012; 18:343-346.

DeVivo MJ and Chen Y. Trends in new injuries, prevalent cases, and aging with spinal cord injury. Archives of Physical Medicine Rehabilitation 2011; 92: 332-338.

Dincer F, Oflazer A, Beyazova M, Celiker R, Basgöze O, Altioklar K. Traumatic spinal cord injuries in Turkey. Paraplegia 1992; 30: 641-646.

Ditunno PL, McCauley C, Marquette C. Sensation-seeking behavior and the incidence of spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1985; 66: 152-155.

DeVivo MJ, Fine PR, Maetz HM, Stover SL. Prevalence of spinal cord injury: a reestimation employing life table techniques. Arch Neurol 1980; 37: 707-708.

DeVivo MJ, Rutt RD, Black KJ, Go BK, Stover SL. Trends in spinal cord injury demographics and treatment outcomes between 1973 and 1986. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1992; 73: 424-430.

DeVivo MJ, Krause JS, Lammertse DP. Recent trends in mortality and causes of death among persons with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1999; 80: 1411-9.

Dixon GS, Danesh JN, Caradoc-Davies TH. Epidemiology of spinal cord injury in New Zealand. Neuroepidemiology 1993; 12: 88-95.

Dong ZH, Yang ZG, Chen TW, Feng YC, Wang QL, Chu ZG. Spinal injuries in the Sichuan earthquake. N Engl J Med 2009; 361: 636-637.

Dryden DM, Saunders LD, Rowe BH, May LA, Yiannakoulias N, Svenson LW, Schopflocher DP, Voaklander DC. The epidemiology of traumatic spinal cord injury in Alberta, Canada. Can J Neurol Sci 2003; 30: 113-121.

Exner G, Meinecke FW. Trends in the treatment of patients with spinal cord lesions seen within a period of 20 years in German centers. Spinal Cord 1997; 35: 415-419.

Farmer JC, Vaccaro AR, Balderston RA, Albert TJ, Cotler J. The changing nature of admissions to a spinal cord injury center: Violence on the rise. J Spinal Disord 1998; 11: 400-403.

Fassett DR, Harrop JS, Maltenfort M, Jeyamohan SB, Ratliff JD, Anderson DG, Hilibrand AS, Albert TJ, Vaccaro AR, Sharan AD. Mortality rates in geriatric patients with spinal cord injuries. J Neurosurg Spine 2007; 7: 277-281.

Franz T, Hasler RM, Benneker L, Zimmermann H, Siebenrock KA, Exadaktylos AK. Severe spinal injuries in alpine skiing and snowboarding: a 6-year review of a tertiary trauma centre for the Burnese Alps ski resorts, Switzerland. Br J Sports Med 2008; 42: 55-58.

Furlan JC, Sakakibara BM, Miller WC, Krassioukov AV. Global incidence and prevalence of traumatic spinal cord injury. Can J Neurol Sci. 2013; 40:456-64.

Garcia-Reneses J, Herruzo-Cabrera R, Martinez-Moreno M. Epidemiological study of spinal cord injury in Spain 1984-1985. Paraplegia 1991; 28: 180-190.

Gautschi OP, Cadosch D, Rajan G, Zellweger R. Earchquakes and trauma: Review of triage and injury specific, immediate care. Prehospital Disast Med. 2008; 23: 195-201.

Gee RW, Sinha SN. The epidemiology of spinal cord injuries in Papua New Guinea. P N G Med J 1982; 25: 97-99.

Goebert DA, Ng MY, Varney JM, Sheetz DA. Traumatic spinal cord injury in Hawaii. Hawaii Med J 1991; 50: 44, 47-48, 50.

Griffin MR, O’Fallon WM, Opitz JL, Kurland LT. Mortality, survival and prevalence: traumatic spinal cord injury in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1935-1981. J Chronic Dis 1985b; 38: 643-653.

Griffin MR, Opitz JL, Kurland LT. Traumatic spinal cord injury in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1935-1981. Am J Epidemiol 1985a; 121: 884-895.

Gur A, Serdar Kemaloglu M, Cevik R, Jale Sarac A, Nas K, Kapukaya A, et al. Characteristics of traumatic spinal cord injuries in south-eastern Anatolia, Turkey: A comparative approach to 10 years’ experience. Int J Rehabil Res 2005; 28: 57-62.

Hagen EM, Rekand T, Gilhus NE, Gronning M. Diagnostic coding accuracy for traumatic spinal cord injuries. Spinal Cord 2009 May; 47: 367-371.

Hagen EM, Rekand T, Gilhus NE, Grønning M. Traumatic spinal cord injuries–incidence, mechanisms and course. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2012; 132:831-7.

Hagen EM, Eide GE, Rekand T, Gilhus NE, Gronning M. A 50-year follow-up of the incidence of traumatic spinal cord injuries in Western Norway. Spinal Cord 2010; 48: 313-318.

Hart C, Williams E. Epidemiology of spinal cord injuries: a reflection of changes in South African society. Paraplegia 1994; 32: 709-714.

Harvey C, Rothschild BB, Asmann AJ, Stripling T. New estimates of traumatic SCI prevalence: a survey-based approach. Paraplegia 1990; 28: 537-544.

Hermanus FJ, Draper CE, and Noakes TD. Spinal cord injuries in South African Rugby Union (1980-2007). South African Medical Journal 2010: 100: 230-234.

Hoque MF, Grangeon C, Reed K. Spinal cord lesions in Bangladesh: an epidemiological study 1994-1995. Spinal Cord 1999; 37: 858-861.

Hu R, Mustard CA, Burns C. Epidemiology of incident spinal fracture in a complete population. Spine 1996; 21: 492-499.

Hua R, Shi J, Wang X, Yang J, Zheng P, Cheng H, Li M, Dai G, An Y. Analysis of the causes and types of traumatic spinal cord injury based on 561 cases in China from 2001 to 2010. Spinal Cord 2013; 51:218-221.

Ibrahim A, Lee KY, Kanoo LL, Tan CH, Hamid MA, Hamedon NM, Haniff J. Epidemiology of spinal cord injury in Hospital Kuala Lumpur. Spine 2013; 38:419-424.

Ide M, Ogata H, Tokuhiro A, Takechi H. Spinal cord injuries in Okayama Prefecture: An epidemiological study ’88-’89. J UOEH 1993; 15: 209-215.

Igun GO, Obekpa OP, Ugwu BT, Nwadiaro HC. Spinal injuries in the Plateau State, Nigeria. East Afr Med J 1999; 76: 75-79.

Jenkins JL, McCarthy ML, Sauer LM, Green GB, Stuart S, Thomas TL, Hsu EB. Mass-casualty triage: Time for an evidence based approach. Prehospital Disast Med 2008; 23: 3-8.

Jakoet I, Noakes TD. A high rate of injury during the 1995 Rugby World Cup. S Afr Med J 1998; 88: 45-47.

Kalsbeek WD, McLaurin RL, Harris BS 3rd, Miller JD. The National Head and Spinal Cord Injury Survey: Major findings. J Neurosurg 1980; Suppl:S19-31

Kannus P, Palvanen M, Niemi S, Parkkari J. Alarming rise in the number and incidence of fall-induced cervical spine injuries among older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2007; 62:180-183.

Karacan I, Koyuncu H, Pekel Ö, Sümbüloglu G, Kirnap M, Dursun H, Kalkan A, Cengiz A, Yalinkilic A, Unalan HI, Nas K, Orkun S, Tekeoglu I. Traumatic spinal cord injuries in Turkey: a nation-wide epidemiological study. Spinal Cord 2000; 38: 697-701.

Karamehmetoglu SS, Nas K, Karacan I, Sarac AJ, Hoyuncu AJ, Ataoglu S, Erdogan F. Traumatic spinal cord injuries in Southeast Turkey: an epidemiological study. Spinal Cord 1997; 35: 531-533.

Karamehmetoglu SS, Unal S, Karacan I, Yilmaz H, Togay HS, Ertekin M, Dosoglu M, Ziyal MI, Kasaro glu D, Hakan T. Traumatic spinal cord injuries in Istanbul, Turkey. An epidemiological study. Paraplegia 1995; 33: 469-471.

Karamouzian S, Saeed A, Ashraf-Ganjouei K, Ebrahiminejad A, Dehghani MR, Asadi AR. The neurological outcome of spinal cord injured victims of the Bam earthquake, Kerman, Iran.  Archives of Iranian Medicine 2010: 13: 351-354.

Kew T, Noakes TD, Kettles AN, Goedeke RE, Newton DA, Scher AT. A retrospective study of spinal cord injuries in Cape Province rugby players, 1963-1989. Incidence, mechanisms and prevention. S Afr Med J 1991; 80: 127-133.

Knutsdottir S. Spinal Cord Injury in Iceland 1973-1989. A follow up study. Paraplegia 1993; 31: 68-72.

Knutsdottir S, Thorisdottir H, Sigvaldason K, Jonsson Jr H, Bjornsson A, Ingvarsson P. Epidemiology of traumatic spinal cord injuries in Iceland from 1975 to 2009. Spinal Cord 2012; 50(123-126).

Koning W, Frowein RA. Incidence of spinal cord injury in the Federal Republic of Germany. Neurosurg Rev 1989; 12(Suppl 1):562-566.

Koo DW, Fish WW. Spinal cord injury and snowboarding–the British Columbia experience. J Spinal Cord Med 1999; 22: 246-251.

Krassioukov AV, Furlan JC, Fehlings MG. Medical Co-Morbidities, Secondary Complications, and Mortality in Elderly with Acute Spinal Cord Injury. J Neurotrauma 2003; 20: 391-399.

Kraus JF, Franti CE, Riggins RS, Richards D, Borhani NO. Incidence of traumatic spinal cord lesions. J Chronic Dis 1975; 28: 471-92.

Kuptniratsaikul V. Epidemiology of spinal cord injuries: a study in the Spinal Unit, Siriraj Hospital, Thailand, 1997-2000. J Med Assoc Thai 2003; 86: 1116-1121.

Lakhey S, Jha N, Shrestha BP, Niraula S. Aetioepidemiological profile of spinal injury patients in Eastern Nepal. Trop Doct 2005; 35: 231-233.

Lan C, Lai JS, Chang KH, Jean YC, Lien IN. Traumatic spinal cord injuries in the rural region of Taiwan: an epidemiological study in Hualien county, 1986-1990. Paraplegia 1993; 31: 398-403.

Lenehan B, Street J, Kwon B, Noonan V, Zhang H, Fisher CG, Dvorak MF. The epidemiology of traumatic spinal cord injury in British Columbia, Canada. Spine 2012; 378:321-329.

Levi R, Hultling C, Nash MS, Seiger A. The Stockholm spinal cord injury study: 1. Medical problems in a regional SCI population. Paraplegia 1995; 33: 308-315.

Levy LF, Makarawo S, Madzivire D, Bhebhe E, Verbeek N, Parry O. Problems, struggles and some success with spinal cord injury in Zimbabwe. Spinal Cord 1998; 36: 213-218.

Li J, Liu G, Zheng Y, Hao C, Zhang Y, Wei B, Zhou H, Wang D. The Epidemiological survey of acute traumatic spinal cord injury (ATSCI) of 2002 in Beijing municipality. Spinal Cord 2011; 49: 777-82.

Lieutaud T, Ndiaye A, Frost F, Chiron M, Registry group. A 10-year population survey of spinal trauma and spinal cord injuries after road accidents in the Rhone Area. Journal of Neurotrauma 2010; 27: 1101-1107.

Macciocchi S, Seel RT, Thompson N, Byams R, Bowman B. Spinal cord injury and co-occurring traumatic brain injury: assessment and incidence. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2008; 89: 1350-1357.

Maharaj JC. Epidemiology of spinal cord paralysis in Fiji: 1985-1994. Spinal Cord 1996; 34: 549-559.

Marshall LF. Epidemiology and cost of central nervous system injury. Clin Neurosurg 2000; 46: 105-112.

Martin B. Paediatric cervical spine injuries. Injury 2005; 36: 14-20.

Martins F, Freitas F, Martins L, Dartigues JF, Barat M. Spinal cord injuries–epidemiology in Portugal’s central region. Spinal Cord 1998; 36: 574-578.

Maruo S, Matumoto M. Spinal fractures resulting from the 1995 Great Hanshin Earthquake of the Kobe-Osaka area of Japan. Spinal Cord 1996; 34: 382-386.

McCammon JR and Ethans K. Spinal Cord injury in Manitoba: a provincial epidemiological study. Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine 2011; 34: 6-10.

Middleton PM, Davies SR, Anand S, Reinten-Reynolds T, Marial O, Middleton JW. The pre-hospital epidemiology and management of spinal cord injuries in New South Wales: 2004-2008. Injury 2012; 43:480-485.

Molsa JJ, Tegner Y, Alaranta H, Myllynen P, Kujala UM. Spinal cord injuries in ice hockey in Finland and Sweden from 1980 to 1996. Int J Sports Med 1999; 20: 64-67.

National Spinal Cord Injury Statistical Center. Spinal cord injury: facts and figures at a glance. J Spinal Cord Med 2000; 23: 51-53.

National Spinal Cord Injury Statistical Center. Spinal cord injury. Facts and figures at a glance. J Spinal Cord Med 2005; 28: 379-380.

National Spinal Cord Injury Statistical Center. Spinal cord injury Facts and figures at a glance. J Spinal Cord Med 2008; 31: 357-8.

National Spinal Cord Injury Statistical Center. Spinal cord injury Facts and figures at a glance. J Spinal Cord Med 2010; 33: 439-40.

Ning GZ, Yu TQ, Feng SQ, Zhou XH, Ban, DX, Liu Y, Jiao YY. Epidemiology of traumatic spinal cord injury in Tianjin, China. Spinal Cord 2011; 49: 386-390.

Ning GZ, Wu Q, Li YL, Feng SQ. Epidemiology of traumatic spinal cord injury in Asia: a systematic review. J Spinal Cord Med. 2012; 35:229-339.

Noonan VK, Finas M, Farry A, Baxter D, Singh A, Fehlings MB, Dvorak MF. Incidence and prevalence of spinal cord injury in Canada: A national perspective. Neuroepidemiology 2012; 38:219-226.

Noakes TD, Jakoet I, Baalbergen E. An apparent reduction in the incidence and severity of spinal cord injuries in schoolboy rugby players in the Western Cape since 1990. S Afr Med J 1999; 89: 540-545.

Nobunaga AI, Go BK, Karunas RB. Recent demographic and injury trends in people served by the Model Spinal Cord Injury Care Systems. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1999; 80: 1372-1382.

Obalum DC, Giwa SO, Adekoya-Cole TO, Enweluzo GO. Profile of spinal injuries in Lagos, Nigeria. Spinal Cord 2009; 47: 134-137.

O’Connor P. Incidence and patterns of spinal cord injury in Australia. Accid Anal Prev 2002; 34: 405-415.

O’Connor PJ. Forecasting of spinal cord injury annual case numbers in Australia. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2005; 86: 48-51.

O’Connor RJ, Murray PC. Review of spinal cord injuries in Ireland. Spinal Cord 2006; 44: 445-8.

Olasode BJ, Komolafe IE, Komolafe M, Olasode OA. Traumatic spinal cord injuries in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, and its environs. Trop Doct 2006; 36: 181-182.

Otom AS, Doughan AM, Kawar JS, Hattar EZ. Traumatic spinal cord injuries in Jordan–an epidemiological study. Spinal Cord 1997; 35: 253-255.

Pagliacci MC, Celani MG, Zampolini M, Spizzichino L, Franceschini M, Baratta S, Finali G, Gatta G, Perdon L; Gruppo Italiano Studio Epidemiologico Mielolesioni. An Italian survey of traumatic spinal cord injury. The Gruppo Italiano Studio Epidemiologico Mielolesioni study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2003; 84: 1266-75.

Pedersen V, Müller PG, Biering-Sørensen F. Traumatic spinal cord injuries in Greenland 1965-1986. Paraplegia 1989; 27: 345-349.

Perez K, Novoa AM, Santamarina-Rubio E, Narvaez Y, Arrufat V, Borrell C, Cabeza E, Cirera E, Ferrando J, Garcia-Altes A, Gonzalez-Luque JC, Lizarbe C, Martin-Cantera C, Segui-Gomez M, Suelves JM. Incidence trends of traumatic spinal cord injury and traumatic brain injury in Spain, 2000-2009. Accid Anal Prev 2012; 46:37-44.

Pickett GE, Campos-Benitez M, Keller JL, Duggal N. Epidemiology of traumatic spinal cord injury in Canada. Spine 2006; 31: 799-805.

Pickett W, Simpson K, Walker J, Brison RJ. Traumatic spinal cord injury in Ontario, Canada. J Trauma 2003; 55: 1070-1076.

Pietraszkiewicz F, Tysiewicz-Dudek M. Epidemiology of spinal injuries in Lubuskie Province. Ortop Traumatol Rehabil 2010; 12: 435-42.

Pirouzmand F. Epidemiological trends of spine and spinal cord injuries in the largest Canadian adult trauma center from 1986 to 2006. Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine 2010; 12: 131-140.

Price C, Makintubee S, Herndon W, Istre GR. Epidemiology of traumatic spinal cord injury and acute hospitalization and rehabilitation charges for spinal cord injuries in Oklahoma, 1988-1990. Am J Epidemiol 1994; 139: 37-47.

Quarrie KL, Gianotti SM, Hopkins WG, Hume PA. Effect of nationwide injury prevention programme on serious spinal injuries in New Zealand rugby union: ecological study. BMJ 2007; 334: 1150.

Qureshi MA, Khalique AB, Pasha IF, Asad A, Malik AS, Shah MQA, Ahmed A. Epidemiology of non-disaster spinal injuries at a spine unit. Journal of College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan 2010; 20: 667-670.

Raineteau O, Schwab ME. Plasticity of motor systems after incomplete spinal cord injury. Nat Rev Neurosci 2001; 2: 263-273.

Raissi GR, Mokhtari A, Mansouri K. Reports from spinal cord injury patients: eight months after the 2003 earthquake in Bam, Iran. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2007; 86: 912-917.

Rathore M, Rashid P, Butt AW, Malik AA, Gill ZA, Haig AJ. Epidemiology of spinal cord injuries in the 2005 Pakistan earthquake. Spinal Cord 2007; 45: 658-663.

Ravaud J-F, Delcey M, Desert J-F, TETRAFIGAP Group. The Tetrafigap Survey on the long-term outcome of tetraplegic spinal cord injured persons, Part II: Demographic characteristics and initial cause of injury. Spinal Cord 2000; 38: 164-172.

Razdan S, Kaul RL, Motta A, Kaul S, Bhatt RK. Prevalence and pattern of major neurological disorders in rural Kashmir (India) in 1986. Neuroepidemiology 1994; 13: 113-119.

Ring IT, Berry G, Dan NG. Epidemiology and clinical outcomes of neurotrauma in New South Wales. Aust N Z J Surg 1986; 56: 557-566.

Roe JP, Taylor TK, Edmunds IA, Cumming RG, Ruff SJ, Plunkett-Cole MD, et al. Spinal and spinal cord injuries in horse riding: the New South Wales experience 1976-1996. Aust N Z J Surg 2003; 73: 331-334.

Rotem TR, Lawson JS, Wilson SF, Engel S, Rutkowski SB, Aisbett CW. Severe cervical spinal cord injuries related to rugby union and league football in New South Wales, 1984-1996. Med.J.Aust. 1998; 168: 379-381.

Sabre L, Pedia G, Rekand T, Asser T, Linnamagi U, Korv J. High incidence of traumatic spinal cord injury in Estonia. Spinal Cord 2012; 50:755-759.

Schmitt H, Gerner HJ. Paralysis from sport and diving accidents. Clin J Sport Med 2001; 11: 17-22.

Schoenfeld AJ, McCriskin B, Hsiao M, Burks R. Incidence and epidemiology of spinal cord injury within a closed American population: the United States military (2000-2009). Spinal Cord 2011; 49:874-879.

Secin FP, Poggi EJ, Luzuriaga F, Laffaye HA. Disabling injuries of the cervical spine in Argentine rugby over the last 20 years. Br J Sports Med 1999; 33: 33-36.

Sheng ZY. Medical support in the Tangshan earthquake: a review of the management of mass casualties and certain major injuries. J Trauma 1987; 27: 1130-1135.

Shingu H, Ikata T, Katoh S, Akatsu T. Spinal cord injuries in Japan: A nationwide epidemiological survey in 1990. Paraplegia 1994; 32: 3-8.

Shingu H, Ohama M, Ikata T, Katoh S, Akatsu T. A nationwide epidemiological survey in Japan from January 1990 to December 1992.  Paraplegia 1995; 33: 183-188.

Shrestha D, Garg M, Singh GK, Singh MP, Sharma UK. Cervical spine injuries in a teaching hospital of eastern region of Nepal: A clinico-epidemiological study. JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc 2007; 46: 107-111.

Silberstein B, Rabinovich S. Epidemiology of spinal cord injuries in Novosibirsk, Russia. Paraplegia 1995; 33: 322-325.

Singh R, Sharma SC, Mittal R, Sharma A. Traumatic spinal cord injuries in Haryana: an epidemiological study. Indian J Community Med 2003; 28: 184-186.

Soopramanien A. Epidemiology of spinal injuries in Romania. Paraplegia 1994; 32: 715-722.

Spinecare Foundation, Australian Spinal Cord Injury U. Spinal cord injuries in Australian footballers. Aust N Z J Surg 2003; 73: 493-499.

Stanford RE, Soden R, Bartrop R, Mikk M, Taylor TKF. Spinal cord and related injuries after attempted suicide: Psychiatric diagnosis and long-term follow-up. Spinal Cord 2007; 45: 437-443.

Starr-Bocian J. Colorado’s experience. Spinal cord injuries: five years of support and surveillance. Colo Med 1991; 88: 260-261.

Stavrev P, Kitov B, Dimov S, Kalnev B, Petrov K. Incidence of spinal cord injuries in Plovdiv and Plovdiv region, Bulgaria. Folia Med (Plovdiv) 1994; 36: 67-70.

Stein DM, Kufera JA, Ho SM, Ryb GE, Dischinger PC, O’Connor JV, Scalea TM. Occupant and crash characteristics of case occupants with cervical spine injuries sustained in motor vehicle collisions. Journal of Trauma Injury, Infection and Critical Care 2011; 70: 299-309.

Strauss DJ, Devivo MJ, Paculdo DR, Shavelle RM. Trends in life expectancy after spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2006; 87: 1079-85.

Surkin J, Gilbert BJ, Harkey HL,3rd, Sniezek J, Currier M. Spinal cord injury in Mississippi. Findings and evaluation, 1992-1994. Spine 2000; 25: 716-721.

Tahmasebi MN, Kiani K, Mazlouman SJ, Taheri A, Kamrani RS, Panjavi B, Harandi BA. Musculoskeletal injuries associated with earthquake. A report of injuries of Iran’s December 26, 2003 Bam earthquake casualties managed in tertiary referral centers. Injury 2005; 36: 27-32.

Tanaka H, Oda J, Iwai A, Kuwagata Y, Matsuoka T, Takaoka M, Kishi M, Morimoto F, Ishikawa K, Mizushima Y, Nakata Y, Yamamura H, Hiraide A, Shimazu T, Yoshioka T. Morbidity and mortality of hospitalized patients after the 1995 Hanshin-Awaji earthquake. Am J Emerg Med 1999; 17: 186-191.

Tarazi F, Dvorak MF, Wing PC. Spinal injuries in skiers and snowboarders. Am J Sports Med 1999; 27: 177-180.

Tator CH, Duncan EG, Edmonds VE, Lapczak LI, Andrews DF. Changes in epidemiology of acute spinal cord injury from 1947 to 1981. Surg Neurol 1993; 40: 207-215.

Tator CH, Edmonds VE, Lapczak L, Tator IB. Spinal injuries in ice hockey players, 1966-1987. Can J Surg 1991; 34: 63-69.

Tator CH, Provvidenza CF, Lapczak L, Carson J, Raymond D. Spinal injuries in Canadian Ice Hockey: Documentation of injuries sustained from 1943-1999. Can J Neurol Sci 2004; 31: 460-466.

Tauqir SF, Mirza S, Gul S, Ghaffar H, Zafar A. Complications in patients with spinal cord injuries sustained in an earthquake. J Spinal Cord Med 2007; 30: 373-377.

Thurman DJ, Burnett CL, Beaudoin DE, Jeppson L, Sniezek JE. Risk factors and mechanisms of occurrence in motor vehicle-related spinal cord injuries: Utah. Accid Anal Prev 1995; 27: 411-415.

Thurman DJ, Burnett CL, Jeppson MS, Beaudoin DE, Sniezek JE. Surveillance of spinal cord injuries in Utah, USA. Paraplegia 1994; 32:665-669.

Torg JS, Vegso JJ, O’Neill MJ, Sennett B. The epidemiologic, pathologic, biomechanical, and cinematographic analysis of football-induced cervical spine trauma. Am J Sports Med 1990; 18: 50-57.

Umaru H, Ahidjo A. Pattern of spinal cord injury in Maiduguri, North Eastern Nigeria. Niger J Med 2005; 14: 276-278.

van Asbeck F, Post M, Pangalila RF. An epidemiological description of spinal cord injuries in The Netherlands in 1994. Spinal Cord 2000; 38: 420-424.

Van den Berg M, Castellote JM, Mahillo-Fernandez I, de Pedro-Cuesta J. Incidence of traumatic spinal cord injury in Aragon, Spain (1972-2008). Journal of Neurotrauma 2011; 28: 469-477.

van den Berg ME, Castellote JM, Mahillo-Fernandez I, de Pedro-Cuesta J. Incidence of spinal cord injury worldwide: a systematic review. Neuroepidemiology. 2010; 34:184-92.

Vlok AJ, Dunn RN, Stander J. Shallow-water spinal injuries- devastating but preventable. South African Medical Journal 2010; 100: 682-684.

Wang HF, Yin ZS, Chen Y, Duan ZH, Hou S, He J. Epidemiological features of traumatic spinal cord injury in Anhui Province, China. Spinal Cord 2013; 51:20-22.

Warren S, Moore M, Johnson MS. Traumatic head and spinal cord injuries in Alaska (1991-1993). Alaska Med 1995; 37: 11-19.

Woodruff BA, Baron RC. A description of nonfatal spinal cord injury using a hospital-based registry. Am J Prev Med 1994; 10: 10-14.

Wu JC, Chen YC, Liu L, Chen TJ, Huang WC, Cheng H, Su TP. Effects of age, gender, and socio-economic status on the incidence of spinal cord injury: an assessment of using the eleven-year comprehensive nationwide database of Taiwan. Journal of Neurotrauma 2011; 29: 889-897.

Wu Q, Li YL, Ning GZ, Feng SQ, Chu TC, Li Y, Hai Y, Wu QL. Epidemiology of traumatic cervical spinal cord injury in Tianjin, China. Spinal Cord 2012; 50:740-744.

Wyndaele M, Wyndaele JJ. Incidence, prevalence and epidemiology of spinal cord injury: what learns a worldwide literature survey? Spinal Cord. 2006; 44:523-529.

Yamakawa H, Murase S, Sakai H, Iwama T, Katada M, Niikawa S, et al. Spinal injuries in snowboarders: risk of jumping as an integral part of snowboarding. J Trauma 2001; 50: 1101-1105.

Yang NP, Deng CY, Lee YH, Lin CH, Kao CH, Chou P. The incidence and characterisation of hospitalised acute spinal trauma in Taiwan–a population-based study. Injury 2008; 39: 443-450.

Ye C, Sun T, Li J, Zhang F. Pattern of sports- and recreation-related spinal cord injuries in Beijing. Spinal Cord 2009; 47: 857-60.

Yeo JD. Prevention of spinal cord injuries in an Australian study (New South Wales). Paraplegia 1993; 31: 759-763.