McIntyre A, Thompson S, Mehta S, Loh E, Teasell RW (2014). Heterotopic Ossification Following Spinal Cord Injury. In Eng JJ, Teasell RW, Miller WC, Wolfe DL, Townson AF, Hsieh JTC, Connolly SJ, Noonan VK, Loh E, McIntyre A, editors. Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Evidence. Version 5.0: p 1-19.
Heterotopic ossification (HO) is the formation of pathological bone in muscle or soft tissue. The incidence in individuals following a spinal cord injury (SCI) has been reported to vary greatly, ranging from 10% to 78% (Banovac 2001; van Kuijk et al. 2002). Banovac et al. (2001) noted that HO occurs most frequently in the first two months after SCI, below the level of paralysis. The etiology of HO is not fully understood; this creates challenges in determining appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.