AA

References

Download as a PDF

Aaronson MJ, Freed MM, Burakoff R. Colonic myoelectric activity in persons with spinal cord injury. Dig Dis Sci 1985;30: 295-300.

Amir I, Sharma R, Bauman WA, Korsten MA. Bowel care for individuals with spinal cord injury: comparison of four approaches. J Spinal Cord Med 1998; 21: 21-24.

Anderson KD. Targeting recovery: Priorities of the spinal cord-injured population. Journal of Neurotrauma 2004; 21: 1371-1383.

Ayas S, Leblebici B, Sozay S, Bayramoglu M, Niron EA. The effect of abdominal massage on bowel function in patients with spinal cord injury. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2006; 85: 951-955.

Badiali D, Bracci F, Castellano V, Corazziari E, Fuoco U, Habib FI, Scivoletto G. Sequential treatment of chronic constipation in paraplegic subjects. Spinal Cord 1997; 35: 116-120.

Banwell J, Creasey G, Aggarwal A, Mortimer J. Management of the neurogenic bowel in patients with spinal cord          injury.Urol. Clin. North. Am 1993;30:517-526.

Binnie NR, Creasey GH, Edmond P, Smith AN. The action of cisapride on the chronic constipation of paraplegia. Paraplegia 1988; 26: 151-158.

Binnie NR, Smith AN, Creasey GH, Edmond P. Constipation associated with chronic spinal cord injury: the effect of pelvic parasympathetic stimulation by the Brindley stimulator. Paraplegia 1991; 29: 463-469.

Brading AF, Ramalingam T. Mechanisms controlling normal defecation and the potential effects of spinal cord injury. Prog Brain Res 2006; 152: 345-58.

Branagan G, Tromans A, Finnis D. Effect of stoma formation on bowel care and quality of life in patients with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2003; 41: 680-683.

Byrne CM, Pager CK, Rex J, Roberts R, Solomon MJ (1998): Assessment of Quality of Life in the treatment of patients with neuropathic fecal incontinence. Dis Colon Rectum 2002; 45: 1431-6.

Cameron KJ, Nyulasi IB, Collier GR, Brown DJ. Assessment of the effect of increased dietary fibre intake on bowel function in patients with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 1996; 34: 277-283.

Cardenas DD, Ditunno J, Graziani V, Jackson AB, Lammertse D, Potter P, Sipski M, Cohen R, Blight AR. Phase 2 trial of sustained-release fampridine in chronic spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2007; 45: 158-168.

Chia YW, Lee TKY, Kour NW, Tung KH, Tan ES. Microchip implants on the anterior sacral roots in patients with spinal trauma: Does it improve bowel function? Dis Colon Rectum 1996; 39: 690-694.

Christensen P, Bazzocchi G, Coggrave M, Abel R, Hulting C, Krogh K, Media S, Laurberg S. A randomized, controlled trial of transanal irrigation versus conservative bowel management in spinal cord-injured patients. Gastroenterology 2006; 131: 738-747.

Christensen P, Bazzocchi G, Coggrave M, Abel R, Hulting C, Krogh K, Media S, Laurberg S. Outcome of transanal irrigation for bowel dysfunction in patients with spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med 2008; 31: 560-567.

Christensen P, Krogh K. Transanal irrigation for disordered defecation: a systematic review. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2010;45:517-27.

Christensen P, Kvitzau B, Krogh K, Buntzen S, Laurberg S. Neurogenic colorectal dysfunction – use of new antegrade and retrograde wash-out methods. Spinal Cord 2000; 38: 255-261.

Coggrave M, Burrows D, Durand MA. Progressive protocol in the bowel management of spinal cord injuries. British Journal of Nursing 2006; 15: 1108-1113.

Coggrave M, Norton C, Cody JD. Management of fecal incontinence and constipation in adults with central neurological diseases. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;1:CD002115

Coggrave M, Wiesel PH, Norton C. Management of fecal incontinence and constipation in adults with central neurological diseases. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006b; 19: CD002115.

Coggrave MJ, Ingram RM, Gardner BP, Norton C. The impact of stoma for bowel management after spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2012; 50: 848-852.

Coggrave MJ, Norton C, Wilson-Barnett J. Management of neurogenic bowel dysfunction in the community after spinal cord injury: a postal survey in the United Kingdom. Spinal Cord 2009; 47: 323-330.

Coggrave MJ, Norton C. The need for manual evacuation and oral laxatives in the management of neurogenic bowel dysfunction after spinal cord injury: a randomized controlled trial of a stepwise protocol. Spinal Cord. 2010;48:504-10.

Consortium for Spinal Cord Medicine. Neurogenic bowel management in adults with spinal cord injury. In Clinical practice guidelines. Paralyzed Veterans of America; 1998.

Consortium for Spinal Cord Medicine. Neurogenic Bowel Management in Adults with Spinal Cord Injury: Clinical Practice Guidelines for Health-Care Professionals. Washington, DC: Paralyzed Veterans of America, 1998.

Correa GI, Rotter KP. Clinical evaluation and management of neurogenic bowel after spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord2000; 38: 301-308.

Cosman BC, Vu TT. Lidocaine anal block limits autonomic dysreflexia during anorectal procedures in spinal cord            injury: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Dis Colon Rectum. 2005;48:1556-61.

Davis R, Patrick J, Barriskill A. Development of functional electrical stimulators utilizing cochlear implant technology. Med Eng Phys 2001; 23: 61-68.

De Both PSM, de Groot GH, Slootman HR. Effects of cisapride on constipation in paraplegic patients: a placebo-controlled randomized double-blind cross-over study. European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology 1992; 4: 1013-1017.

Del Popolo G, Mosiello G, Pilati C, Lamartina M, Battaglino F, Buffa P, Redaelli T, Lamberti G, Menarini M, Di Benedetto P, De Gennaro M. Treatment of neurogenic bowel dysfunction using transanal irrigation: a multicenter Italian study. Spinal Cord 2008; 46: 517-522.

Dunn KL, Galka ML. A comparison of the effectiveness of Therevac SB and bisacodyl suppositories in SCI patients’ bowel programs. Rehabil.Nurs 1994; 19: 334-338.

Emmanuel A. Review of the efficacy and safety of transanal irrigation for neurogenic bowel dysfunction. Spinal Cord. 2010;48:664-73

Emmanuel AV, Krogh K, Bazzochi G, Leroi A-M, Bremers A, Leder D, van Kuppevelt D, Mosiello G, Vogel M, Perrouin-Verbe B, Coggrave M, Christensen P, and Members of the working group on Transanal Irrigation from UK, Denmark, Italy, Germany, France and the Netherlands. Consensus review of best practice of transanal irrigation in adults. Spinal Cord 2013; 51: 732-738.

Faaborg PM, Christensen P, Finnerup N, Laurberg S, Krogh K. The pattern of colorectal dysfunction changes with time since spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2008; 46: 234-238.

Faaborg PM, Christensen P, Kvitsau B, Buntzen S, Laurberg S, Krogh K. Long-term outcome and safety of transanal colonic irrigation for neurogenic bowel dysfunction. Spinal Cord 2009; 47: 545-549.

Fajardo NR, Pasiliao RV, Modeste-Duncan R, Creasey G, Bauman WA, Korsten MA. Decreased colonic motility in persons with chronic spinal cord injury. Am J Gastroenterol 2003; 98: 128-34.

Fealey RD, Szurszewski JH, Merrit JL, DiMagno EP. Effect of traumatic spinal cord transection on human upper gastrointestinal motility and gastric emptying. Gastroenterology 1984; 87: 69-75.

Finnerup NB, Faaborg P, Krogh K, Jensen TS. Abdominal pain in long-term spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2008; 46: 198-203.

Ford MJ, Camilleri MJ, Hanson RB, Wiste JA, Joyner MJ. Hyperventilation, central autonomic control, and colonic tone in humans. Gut 1995; 37: 499-504.

Frisbie JH, Tun CG, Nguyen CH. Effect of enterostomy on quality of life in spinal cord injury patients. J Am Paraplegia Soc 1986; 9: 3-5.

Frisbie JH. Improved bowel care with a polyethylene glycol based bisacadyl suppository. J Spinal Cord Med 1997; 20: 227-229.

Frost F, Hartwig D, Jaeger R, Leffler E, Wu Y. Electrical stimulation of the sacral dermatomes in spinal cord injury: effect on rectal manometry and bowel emptying. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1993; 74: 696-701.

Furusawa K, Sugiyama H, Ikeda A, Tokuhiro A, Koyoshi, H, Takahashi M, Tajima F. Autonomic dysreflexia during a bowel program in patients with cervical spinal cord injury. Acta Med Okayama 2007; 61: 211-227.

Geders JM, Gaing A, Bauman WA, Korsten MA. The effect of cisapride on segmental colonic transit time in patients with spinal cord injury. Am.J.Gastroenterol 1995; 90: 285-289.

Glick ME, Meshkinpour H, Haldeman S, Hoehler F, Downey N, Bradley WE. Colonic dysfunction in patients with thoracic spinal cord injury. Gastroenterology 1984; 86: 287-294.

Glickman S, Kamm MA. Bowel dysfunction in spinal-cord-injury patients. Lancet 1996; 347: 1651-3.

Gondim FA, Rodrigues CL, da Graça JR, Camurça FD, de Alencar HM, dos Santos AA, Rola FH. Neural mechanisms involved in the delay of gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit of liquid after thoracic spinal cord transection in awake rats. Auton Neurosci. 2001; 87: 52-8.

Gstaltner K, Rosen H, Hufgard J, Märk R, Schrei K. Sacral nerve stimulation as an option for the treatment of fecal incontinence in patients suffering from cauda equina syndrome. Spinal Cord 2008; 46: 644-647.

Haas U, Geng V, Evers GC, Knecht H. Bowel management in patients with spinal cord injury — a multicentre study of the German speaking society of paraplegia (DMGP). Spinal Cord. 2005;43:724-30.

Han TR, Kim JH, Kwon BS. Chronic gastrointestinal problems and bowel dysfunction in patients with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 1998; 36: 485-490.

Hascakova-Bartova R, Dinant J-F, Parent A, Ventura M. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation of completely paralyzed abdominal muscles in spinal cord-injured patients: a pilot study. Spinal Cord 2008; 46: 445-450.

Heart Health. The complete healthy shopping check list [pamphlet]. Heart Health. Becel and Heart and Stroke Foundation.

Hocevar B, Gray M. Intestinal Diversion (Colostomy or Ileostomy) in Patients with Severe Bowel Dysfunction Following Spinal Cord Injury. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs 2008; 35: 159-166.

Hoenig H, Murphy T, Galbraith J, Zolkewitz M. Case study to evaluate a standing table for managing constipation. SCI Nursing 2001;18: 74-7.

Holzer B, Rosen HR, Novi G, Ausch C, Nolbling N, Schiessel. Sacral nerve stimulation for neurogenic fecal incontinence. British Journal of Surgery 2007; 94: 749-753.

House JG, Stiens SA. Pharmacologically initiated defecation for persons with spinal cord injury: effectiveness of three agents. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1997; 78: 1062-1065.

Hu C, Ye M, Huang Q. Effects of manual therapy on bowel function of patients with spinal cord injury. J Phys Ther Sci 2013; 25: 687-688.

Jarrett MED, Matzel KE, Christiansen J, Baeten CGMI, Rosen H, Bittorf B, Stosser M, Madoff R, Kamm MA.Sacral nerve stimulation for fecal incontinence in patients with previous partial spinal injury including disc prolapse. British Journal of Surgery 2005; 92: 734-739.

Johnston TE, Betz RR, Smith BT, Benda BJ, Mulcahey MJ, Davis R, Houdayer TP, Pontari MA, Barriskill A, Creasey GH. Implantable FES system for upright mobility and bladder and bowel function for individuals with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord2005; 43: 713-723.Kachourbos MJ, Creasey GH. Health promotion in motion: Improving quality of life for persons with neurogenic bladder and bowel using assistive technology. SCI Nursing 2000; 17: 125-129.

Kelly SR, Shashidharan M, Borwell B, Tromans AM, Finnis D, Grundy DJ. The role of intestinal stoma in patients with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 1999; 37: 211-214.

Kenefick NJ, Christiansen J. A review of sacral nerve stimulation for the treatment of fecal incontinence. Colorectal Dis. 2004;6:75-80.

Keshavarzian A, Barnes WE, Bruninga K, Nemchausky B, Mermall H, Bushnell D. Delayed colonic transit in spinal cord-injured patients measured by indium-111 Amberlite scintigraphy. Am J Gastroenterol 1995; 90: 1295-1300.

Kim HR, Lee BS, Lee JE, Shin HI. Application of transanal irrigation for patients with spinal cord injury in South Korea: a 6-month follow-up study. Spinal Cord 2013; 51: 389-394.

Kirk P, King R, Temple R, Bourjailly J & Thomas P. Long-term follow-up of bowel management after spinal cord injury. SCI Nurs.1997; 14: 56-63.

Korsten M, Singal AK, Monga A, Chaparala G, Khan AM, Palmon R, Mendoza JRD, Lirio JP, Rosman AS, Spungen A, Bauman WA. Anorectal stimulation causes increased colonic motor activity in subjects with spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med 2007; 30: 31-35.

Korsten MA, Fajardo NR, Rosman AS, Creasey GH, Spungen AM, Bauman WA. Difficulty with evacuation after spinal cord injury: Colonic motility during sleep and effects of abdominal wall stimulation. JRRD 2004; 41: 95-99.

Korsten MA, Rosman AS, Ng A, Cavusoglu E, Spungen AM, Radulovic M, Wecht J, Bauman WA. Infusion of neostigmine-glycopyrrolate for bowel evacuation in persons with spinal cord injury. Am J Gastroenterol 2005; 100: 1560-1565.

Krassioukov A, Eng JJ, Claxton G, Sakakibara BM, Shum S. Neurogenic bowel management after spinal cord injury: A systematic review of the evidence.Spinal Cord 2010; 48: 718-733.

Krogh K, Jensen MB, Gandrup P, Laurberg S, Nilsson J, Kerstens R, De Pauw M. Efficacy and tolerability of prucalopride in patients with constipation due to spinal cord injury. Scand J Gastroenterol 2002; 37: 431-436.

Krogh K, Mosdal C, Laurberg S. Gastrointestinal and segmental colonic transit times in patients with acute and chronic spinal cord lesions. Spinal Cord 2000; 38: 615-621.

Leduc BE, Spacek E, Lepage Y. Colonic transit time after spinal cord injury: any clinical significance? J Spinal Cord Med 2002; 25: 161-6.

Lin VW, Kim KH, Hsiao I, Brown W. Functional magnetic stimulation facilitates gastric emptying. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002; 83: 806-810.

Lin VW, Nino-Murcia M, Frost F, Wolfe V, Hsiao I, Perkash I. Functional magnetic stimulation of the colon in persons with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001; 82: 167-173.

Lombardi G, Del Popolo G, Cecconi F, Surrenti E, Macchiarella A. Clinical outcome of sacral neuromodulation in incomplete spinal-cord injured patients suffering from neurogenic bowel dysfunctions. Spinal Cord 2009; 48: 154-159.

Lombardi G, Nelli F, Mencarini M, Del Popolo G. Clinical concomitant benefits on pelvic floor dysfunction after sacral neuromodulation in patients with incomplete spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2011; 49: 629-636.

Longo WE, Woolsey RM, Vernava AM, Virgo KS, McKirgan L, Johnson FE. Cisapride for constipation in spinal cord injured patients: a preliminary report. J Spinal Cord Med 1995; 18: 240-244.

Luther SL, Nelson AL, Harrow JJ, Chen F, Goetz LL. A comparison of patient outcomes and quality of life in persons with neurogenic bowel: standard bowel care program vs colostomy. J Spinal Cord Med 2005; 28: 387-393.

Lynch AC, Antony A, Dobbs BR, Frizelle FA. Bowel dysfunction following spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2001; 39: 193-203.

Lynch AC, Frizelle FA. Colorectal motility and defecation after spinal cord injury in humans. Prog Brain Res 2006; 152: 335-43.

Lynch AC, Wong C, Anthony A, Dobbs BR, Frizelle FA. Bowel dysfunction following spinal cord injury: a description of bowel function in a spinal cord-injured population and comparison with age and gender matched controls. Spinal Cord 2000; 38: 717-723.

MacDonagh RP, Sun WM, Smallwood R, Forster D, Read NW. Control of defecation in patients with spinal injuries by stimulation of sacral anterior nerve roots. BMJ 1990; 300: 1494-1497.

Malone, PS, Ransley PG, Kiely EM. Preliminary report: The antegrade continence enema. The Lancet 1990; 336: 1217-1218.

Menardo G, Bausano G, Corazziari E, Fazio A, Marangi A, Genta V, Marenco G. Large-bowel transit in paraplegic patients. Dis Colon Rectum 1987; 30: 924-928.

Menter R, Weitzenkamp D, Cooper D, Bingley J, Charlifue S, Whiteneck G. Bowel management outcomes in individuals with long-term spinal cord injuries. Spinal Cord 1997; 35: 608-612.

Mentes BB, Yuksel O, Aydin A, Tezcaner T, Leventoglu A, Aytac B. Posterior tibial nerve stimulation for fecal incontinence after partial spinal injury: preliminary report. Tech Coloproctol 2007; 11: 115-119.

Meshkinpour H, Nowroozi F, Glick ME. Colonic compliance in patients with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1983; 64: 111-112.

Morren GL, Walter S, Hallbook O, Sjodahl R. Effects of magnetic sacral root stimulation on anorectal pressure and volume. Dis Colon Rectum 2001; 44: 1827-1833.

Multidisciplinary Association Spinal Cord Injury Professionals guidelines (MASCIP). 2012 Guidelines for Management of Neurogenic Bowel Dysfunction. Online accessed on May 20, 2014: http://www.mascip.co.uk/Core/DownloadDoc.aspx?documentID=7345

Munck J, Simoens Ch, Thill V, Smets D, Debergh N, Fievet F, Mendes da Costa P. Intestinal stoma in patients with spinal cord injury: a retrospective study of 23 patients. Hepatogastroenterology 2008; 55: 2125-2129.

Ng C, Prott G, Rutkowski S, et al. Gastrointestinal symptoms in spinal cord injury: relationships with level of injury and psychologic factors. Dis Colon Rect 2005;48:1562-1568.

Nino-Murcia M, Stone JM, Chang PJ, Perkash I. Colonic transit in spinal cord-injured patients. Invest Radiol 1990; 25: 109-112.

Posser M. The sacral LION procedure for recovery of bladder/rectum/sexual functions in paraplegic patients after explantation of a previous Finetech-Brindley controller. J Minim Invasive Gynecol 2009; 16: 98-101.

Puet TA, Jackson H, Amy S. Use of pulsed irrigation evacuation in the management of the neuropathic bowel. Spinal Cord 1997; 35: 694-699.

Rajendran SK, Reiser JR, Bauman W, Zhang RL, Gordon SK, Korsten MA. Gastrointestinal transit after spinal cord injury: effect of cisapride. Am J Gastroenterol 1992; 87: 1614-1617.

Randell N, Lynch AC, Anthony A, Dobbs BR, Roake JA, Frizelle FA. Does a colostomy alter quality of life in patients with spinal cord injury? A controlled study. Spinal Cord2001; 39: 279-282.

Riedy LW, Chintam R, Walter JS. Use of neuromuscular stimulator to increase anal sphincter pressure. Spinal Cord 2000; 38: 724-727.

Rosito O, Nino-Murcia M, Wolfe VA, Kiratli BJ, Perkash I. The effects of colostomy on the quality of life in patients with spinal cord injury: a retrospective analysis. J Spinal Cord Med 2002; 25: 174-183.

Rosman AS, Chaparala G, Monga A, Spungen AM, Bauman WA, Korsten MA. Intramuscular neostigmine and glycopyrrolate safely accelerated bowel evacuation in patients with spinal cord injury and defecatory disorders. Dig Dis Sci 2008; 53: 2170-2173.

Safadi BY, Rosito O, Nino-Murcia M, Wolfe VA, Perkash I. Which stoma works better for colonic dysmotility in the spinal cord injured patient? Am J Surg 2003; 186: 437-442.

Segal JL, Milne N, Brunnemann SR, Lyons KP. Metoclopramide-induced normalization of impaired gastric emptying in spinal cord injury. Am J Gastroenterol 1987; 82: 1143-1148.

Shafik A, El-Sibai O, Shafik IA. Physiologic basis of digital-rectal stimulation for bowel evacuation in patients with spinal cord injury: identification of an anorectal excitatory reflex. J Spinal Cord Med. 2000; 23: 270-5.

Shandling B, Gilmour RF. The enema continence catheter in spina bifida: successful bowel management. J Pediatr Surg 1987; 22: 271-3.

  • Sievert KD, Amend B, Gakis G, Toomey P, Badke A, Kaps HP, Stenzi A. Early Sacral Neuromodulation Prevents Urinary Incontinence After Complete Spinal Cord Injury. Ann Neurol 2010; 67 : 74-84.

    Singal AK, Rosman AS, Bauman WA, Korsten MA. Recent concepts in the management of bowel probles after spinal cord injury. Adv Med Sci 2006; 51: 15-22.

    Sloots CE, Felt-Bersma RJ, Meuwissen SG, Kuipers EJ. Influence of gender, parity, and caloric load on gastrorectal response in healthy subjects: a barstat study. Dig Dis Sci 2003; 48: 516-521.

    Solomons J and Woodward S. Digital removal of faeces in the bowel management of patients with spinal cord injury : a review. British Journal of Neuroscience Nursing 2013; 9: 216-222.

    Spinal Cord Injury Centres of the United Kingdom and Ireland. Guidelines for management of neurogenic bowel dysfunction after spinal cord injury. Multidisciplinary Association of Spinal Cord Injury Professionals; 2009.

    Stiens SA, Bergman SB, Goetz LL. Neurogenic bowel dysfunction after spinal cord injury: clinical evaluation and rehabilitative management. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1997;78:S86-S102.

    Stiens SA, Luttrel W, Binard JE. Polyethylene glycol versus vegetable oil based bisacodyl suppositories to initiate side-lying bowel care: A clinical trial in persons with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 1998; 36: 777-781.

    Stone JM, Nino-Marcia M, Wolfe VA, Perkash I. Chronic gastrointestinal problems in spinal cord injury patients: a prospective analysis. Am J Gastroenterol 1990a; 85: 1114-9.

    Stone JM, Wolfe VA, Nino-Murcia M, Perkash I. Colostomy as treatment for complications of spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil1990b; 71: 514-518.

    Sun WM, MacDonagh R, Forster D, Thomas DG, Smallwood R, Read NW. Anorectal function in patients with complete spinal transection before and after sacral posterior rhizotomy. Gastroenterology 1995; 108: 990-998.

    Teichman JMH, Harris JM, Currie DM, Barber DB. Malone antegrade continence enema for adults with neurogenic bowel disease. Journal of Urology 1998; 160: 1278-1281.

    Teichman JMH, Zabihi N, Kraus SR, Harris JM, Barber DB. Long-term results for Malone antegrade continence enema for adults with neurogenic bowel disease. Urology 2003; 61: 502-506.

    Treatment of Patients with Neuropathic Fecal Incontinence. Dis Colon Rectum;45:1431-6.

    Tsai PY. Wang CP, Chiu FY, Tsai YA, Chang YC, Chuang TY. Efficacy of functional magnetic stimulation in neurogenic bowel dysfunction after spinal cord injury. J Rehabil Med 2009; 41: 41-47.

    Uchikawa K, Takahashi H, Deguchi G, Liu M. A washing toilet seat with a CCD camera monitor to stimulate bowel movement in patients with spinal cord injury. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2007; 86: 200-204.

    Valles M, Rodriguez A, Borau A, Mearin F. Effect of sacral anterior root stimulator on bowel dysfunction in patients with spinal cord injury. Diseases of the Colon & Rectum 2009; 52: 986-992.

    Worsoe J, Christensen P, Krogh K, Buntzen S, Laurberg S. Long-term results of antegrade colonic enema in adult patients: assessment of functional results. Dis Colon Rectum 2008; 51: 1523-1528.

    Worsoe J, Fynne L, Laurberg S, Krogh K, Rijkhoff NJM. Acute effect of electrical stimulation of the dorsal genital nerve on rectal capacity in patients with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2012; 50: 462-466.

    Worsoe J, Rasmussen M, Christensen P, Krogh K. Neurostimulation for neurogenic bowel dysfunction. Gastroenterology Research and Practice 2013; 1-8.

    Wren FJ, Reese CT, Decter RM. Durability ofthe Malone antegrade continence enema in pregnancy. Urology 2003; 61: 644-644.

    Yang CC, Stiens SA. Antegrade continence enema for the treatment of neurogenic constipation and fecal incontinence after spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2000;81:683-5.