Two relevant systematic reviews were found. Krassioukov et al. (2010) reviewed all research literature published from 1950 to July 2009 related to neurogenic bowel management in individuals with SCI. They reported that although multifaceted bowel management programs are commonly used, only lower levels of evidence support these programs. Coggrave et al. (2014) found 20 randomized or quasi-randomized trials published up to June 2012. There was evidence that the duration of bowel care could be significantly reduced through use of drugs and electrical stimulation, and that transanal irrigation improved a range of outcomes. Both reviews noted that there is a need for more high quality research in the field of bowel management for SCI patients. Future trials should include evaluation of the ‘acceptability of the intervention to patients and the effect on their quality of life’.