Used to objectively evaluate manual wheelchair skills and safety.
There are 5 versions, including manual wheelchairs, powered wheelchairs and scooters, for both wheelchair users and caregivers (excepting scooters).
Existing wheelchair tests (Harvey et al. 1998) do not include the level of wheelchair skills required for daily functioning. The latest version of the WST is 5.2.3; prior versions include 1.0, 2.4, 3.2, etc.
The tasks cover a wide range of difficulty while remaining functional. It is a generic tool that can be used for several populations (e.g., SCI, amputees, stroke, musculoskeletal disorders, able-bodied) and it was developed using both inpatient and community dwelling samples.
The Wheelchair Skills Test is developed for manual wheelchair users, therefore, it may not be appropriate for all individuals with SCI.
The Wheelchair Skills Test typically takes 30 minutes to administer and the WST-Q takes 10 minutes.
Rushton PW, Kirby RL, Routhier F, Smith C. (2016) Measurement properties of the Wheelchair Skills Test – Questionnaire for powered wheelchair users, Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, 11:5, 400-406, DOI: 10.3109/17483107.2014.984778. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25411057
Lemay V, Routhier F, Noreau L, Phang SH, Martin Ginis KA. Relationships between wheelchair skills, wheelchair mobility and level of injury in individuals with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord (2011), 1–5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21931330
Hosseini SM, Oyster ML, Kirby RL, Harrington AL, Boninger ML. Manual Wheelchair Skills Capacity Predicts Quality of Life and Community Integration in Persons With Spinal Cord Injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 93, December 2012; 2237-2243. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22684049
Lindquist NJ, Loudon PE, Magis TF, Rispin JE, Kirby RL, Manns PJ. Reliability of the Performance and Safety Scores of the Wheelchair Skills Test Version 4.1 for Manual Wheelchair Users. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2010;91:1752-57. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21044722
Mountain AD, Kirby RL, Smith C. The Wheelchair Skills Test, Version 2.4: Validity of an Algorithm-Based Questionnaire Version. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2004;85:416-23. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15031827
Kirby RL., Dupuis DJ, MacPhee AH et al. The Wheelchair Skills Test (Version 2.4): Measurement Properties. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2004;85:794-804. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15129405