Designed to measure grips that are needed for certain ADLs such as eating, driving, personal hygiene, and writing.
Includes subtests that represent common handgrips (volar, transverse volar, spherical volar and pinch positions – pulp, lateral, tripod, and the five finger) and activities (using a key; picking up coins from a flat surface; writing with a pen; using a phone; and pouring water from a jug).
The Sollerman (unlike the Jebsen Hand Function Test) considers the quality and level of difficulty with the performance which are important components with respect to hand function.
The test was designed with tetraplegic patients in mind and therefore reflects the needs of this group.
A test box is placed in front of the patients who are required to start each subtask in a seated position (but they may stand to complete a task). Three subtasks are completed using the hands bilaterally while the rest are completed with each hand separately. The subtests are timed and the performance is observed.
Ex. Pick up key, put into Yale-lock and turn 900.
Administration time is usually 20-25 minutes.
Number of Items
Yale-lock with bolts mounted on a vertical wall 30 cm above bottom level.
4 coins of different size
Two purses mounted on a wall (20 cm above bottom level) w/ zips of different size
2 wooden blocks (size 7.5 and 10 cm)
Box (5cm edges)
Iron weight (3 kg)
2 screws with nuts (1 with spring resistance, the other without resistance)
Screwdriver with handle (2.5 cm diameter)
4 bolts of different size
2 jars (lid size 7.5 and 10cm diameter)
4 buttons with different button-hole sizes on pieces of cloth mounted on a plate.
lump of Play-doh
2 TubiGrip stockings of different sizes
Paper (A4 size)
Envelope (C6 size)
2 paper clips of different size
empty water jug (1 litre) with handle
Scoring takes into account the time taken, level of difficulty displayed, and the quality of performance using the correct pinch or grip position.
Patients are then scored on a 5-point scale from 0 (task cannot be performed at all) to 4 (task is completed without any difficulty within the time frame (20 seconds) and with the prescribed hand-grip of normal quality).
Scoring the test can be challenging as the assessor must be aware of multiple factors occurring simultaneously (passage of time, difficulty, correct positioning and quality of performance).
Definitions for interpreting the scoring scheme are not inherently obvious.
A total sum score (0-80) is created by adding up the scores from the different subtests.
No formal training required. However, knowledge of hand function is an asset when scoring.
Correlation of the Sollerman Hand Function test is high with:
the International Classification for Surgery of the Hand in Tetraplegia (Pearson’s r=0.88)
the Motor Capacities Scale (Spearman’s r = 0.959).
(Sollerman & Ejeskar 1995; Fattal 2004)
No values have been reported at this time for the responsiveness of the Sollerman hand Function Test.
No values were reported for the presence of floor/ceiling effects in the Sollerman Hand Function Test for the SCI population.
MCID: not established in SCI
SEM: not established in SCI, but for a sample of patients with burned hands (N=12 (21 hands), mean (SD) age: 45.1 (13.3) yrs, 7M/5F, mean (SD) time since injury: 13.3 (6.9) months):
(Weng, L. Y., Hsieh, C. L., et al. 2010: “Excellent reliability of the Sollerman hand function test for patients with burned hands.” J Burn Care Res 31(6): 904-910)
MDC: not established in SCI, but for a sample of patients with burned hands (N=12 (21 hands), mean (SD) age: 45.1 (13.3) yrs, 7M/5F, mean (SD) time since injury: 13.3 (6.9) months):
(Weng, L. Y., Hsieh, C. L., et al. (2010): “Excellent reliability of the Sollerman hand function test for patients with burned hands.” J Burn Care Res 31(6): 904-910)
Higher scores reflect a better performance.
Subjects with no hand function impairment typically score 80 with the dominant hand and 77-79 for the non-dominant hand.
No meaningful cut points or norms have been established for the SCI population
Fattal C. Motor capacities of upper limbs in tetraplegics: a new scale for the assessment of the results of functional surgery on upper limbs. Spinal Cord, 2004; 42: 80-90. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14765140