# of studies reporting psychometric properties: 5
MCID: not established for the SCI population, but for a sample of older primary care patients (n = 434, mean age = 71 (7.4) years, all participants enrolled in the Improving Mood-Promoting Access to Collaborative Treatment (IMPACT)):
MCID = 5 points
Reference: Lowe, B., Unutzer, J., et al. (2004). “Monitoring depression treatment outcomes with the patient health questionnaire-9.” Med Care 42(12): 1194-1201.
SEM: not established for the SCI population, but for a sample of older primary care patients (see Lowe et al. 2004 reference above): SEM for change due to treatment and no control of prior depression = 2.44 SEM for the same number of DSM-IV depressive symptoms at both assessments = 1.32
MDC: not established
- Higher scores indicate increased severity of depression.
- A cut-off score of 10 has been reported to indicate major depression.
- Published data for the SCI population is available for comparison (see the Interpretability section of the Study Details sheet).
Internal consistency for the overall PHQ-9 scale was reported to be High (Cronbach’s a=0.83-0.89).
[Bombardier et al. 2004, Richardson and Richardson 2008, Graves & Bombardier 2008, Krause et al. 2009]
- Correlation of the PHQ-9 is:
- High with the Older Adult Health and Mood Questionnaire (Spearman’s r=0.781)
- Moderate with major depressive disorder (MDD) (Spearman’s r=0.530)
- Moderate with the Satisfaction with Life Scale (Spearman’s r=-0.477).
- PHQ-9 scores were inversely and Moderately correlated with subjective health on the SF-1 (Spearman’s r=0.37).
- For a 3-item screening test with a score cutoff of 3, a sensitivity of 0.87 and specificity of 0.93 were reported; with a score cutoff of 4, a sensitivity of 0.82 and a specificity of 0.95 were reported.
- For the total PHQ-9, a cutoff of 11 was determined to have optimal diagnostic accuracy of MDD. At this cutoff, the PHQ-9 detected 100% (sensitivity) of those with a diagnosis of MDD and had a specificity of 84%.
[Bombardier et al. 2004, Bombardier et al. 2012, Richardson and Richardson 2008, Krause et al. 2009]
No values were reported for the responsiveness of the PHQ-9 for the SCI population.
No values were reported for the presence of floor/ceiling effects in the PHQ-9 for the SCI population.
Dr. Vanessa Noonan, Kyle Diab
Date Last Updated
Mar 16, 2017