• Developed to measure self-efficacy in performing functional activities of daily living in individuals with SCI.
  • Consists of two factors: daily activities (e.g., I can maintain my personal hygiene with or without help), and social functioning (e.g., I can enjoy spending time with my friends).

Clinical Considerations

  • The scale is specific to individuals with SCI.
  • Individuals with a strong sense of self-efficacy will set challenging goals and have greater expectations resulting from their efforts. Such an efficacious outlook may positively influence rehabilitation efforts.
  • The measurement of self-efficacy in rehabilitation may thus help to identify areas in which individuals with SCI have low self-efficacy of which may be modified via self-efficacy enhancing sources of information.

ICF Domain

Body Function ▶ General Function


  • Self-report questionnaire.
  • Participants rate their confidence in their ability to complete the 16 tasks on a seven-point Likert scale (1-very uncertain, 7-very certain).
  • Approximately 5 minutesis required to administer the test.

Number of Items





  • The total scale score (16-112) is obtained by summing the individual item responses.
  • For the factor or subscale scores, add:
    • “Daily Activities / Instrumental Self-efficacy” subscale score: sum the 7 items (good health, work, accomplishing things, personal hygiene, persistence in learning things, fulfilling lifestyle, household participation).
    • “Social Functioning / Interpersonal Self-efficacy” subscale score: sum the 8 items (maintaining contact, friends, family relationships, unexpected problems, fulfilling lifestyle, leisure, accomplishing things, household participation).


English, Chinese, Swedish, French, and Italian

Training Required



Can be found here.

# of studies reporting psychometric properties: 7


MCID: not established in SCI
SEM: not established in SCI
MDC: not established in SCI

  • Higher scores indicate higher perceived self-efficacy.
  • The scale was able to show a mean change of 8 points (84 – 92) over 6 months in a sample of individuals undergoing sub-acute rehabilitation post-SCI.
  • No normative data or cut points for the scale have been established for the SCI population as of yet.


  • Low to High internal consistency for the item-total correlation: 6 of 8 items: 0.46-0.802 of 8 items (item 2 and item 4):
    0.17 and 0.25

(Middleton et al. 2003)

  • Moderate internal consistency for Factor 1 (social function self-efficacy; 5 items):
    α = 0.77
  • High internal consistency for Factor 2 (general self-efficacy; 4 items):
    α = 0.81
  • High internal consistency for Factor 3 (personal function self-efficacy; 7 items):
    α = 0.80

(Middleton et al. 2016)


  • High correlation with Sickness Impact Profile-68 (SIP- 68) Psychosocial Subscale:
    ρ = -0.80
  • Moderate to High correlation with Depression Anxiety Stress Scale – 21 (DASS-21) Subscales:
    r = -0.58 to -0.63
  • Moderate correlation with Centre for Epidemiologic Diseases Depression Scale (CESD-10) and correlation with Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS):
    CEDS: r = -0.54; SWLS: r = 0.51
  • Moderate correlation with Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) Subscales:
    ρ= -0.31 to -0.56
  • Moderate correlation with age and Factor 1 (Social Function Self-Efficacy):
    r= -0.32 (P<.01)

(Killic et al. 2013; Middleton et al. 2003; Middleton et al. 2016; Munce et al. 2015; Miller, 2009)


No values were reported for the responsiveness of the MSES for the SCI population.

Floor/Ceiling Effect

No values were reported for the presence of floor/ceiling effects in the MSES for the SCI population.


Dr. Vanessa Noonan, John Zhu, Jeremy Mak, Matthew Querée, Risa Fox

Date Last Updated

28 June 2019

Brooks J, Smedema SM, Tu WM, Eagle D, Catalano D, Chan F. Psychometric Validation of the Moorong Self-Efficacy Scale in People With Spinal Cord Injury: A Brief Report. Rehabil Couns Bull. 2014.

Kilic SA, Dorstyn DS, Guiver NG. Examining factors that contribute to the process of resilience following spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2013;51(7):553-7.

Middleton JW, Tran V, Lo C, Craig A. Re-examining the validity and dimensionality of the Moorong self-efficacy scale: improving its clinical utility.

Middleton JW, Tate RL, Geraghty TJ. Self-efficacy and spinal cord injury: psychometric properties of a new scale. Rehabilitation Psychology 2003, 48(4): 281-288.

Miller SM. The measurement of self-efficacy in persons with spinal cord injury: psychometric validation of the mooring self-efficacy scale. Disability and Rehabilitation, 2009; 31(12):988-993.

Munce SE, Straus SE, Fehlings MG, Voth J, Nugaeva N, Jang E, Webster F, Jaglal SB. Impact of psychological characteristics in self-management in individuals with traumatic spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord, 2016; 54(1): 29-33.