• Developed to provide a standardized and objective evaluation of fine and gross motor hand function using simulated activities of daily living.
  • Items to be performed on both the dominant and non-dominant hand.

Clinical Considerations

  • The JHFT only assesses the speed and not the quality of performance
  • The JHFT represents one of the oldest standardized tests of hand function and used individuals with SCI during its initial development.

ICF Domain

Activity ▶ Mobility


  • Clinician-administered; performance-based measure
  • Weighted and non-weighted hand function is assessed through: writing; turning over 3 by 5 inch cards; picking up small common objects; simulated feeding; stacking checkers; picking up large objects; and picking up large heavy objects. Time to complete each task is recorded.
  • Patients are required to perform all of the subtests with both the right and left hands, with the non-dominant hand tested first.
  • Administration of this test takes approximately 45 minutes.

Number of Items



  • Stopwatch, chair (18” seat height), desk/table (30” high), four sheets of unruled white paper, clipboard, sentences typed in all capital letters and centered on a 5×8” index card on a bookstand, 5 index cards (ruled on one side only), empty 1 pound coffee can, 2 paper clips, 2 regular sized bottle caps, 2 U.S. pennies, 5 kidney beans (~5/8” long), 1 regular teaspoon, wooden board (41 ½” long, 11 ¼” wide, ¾” thick), “C” clamp, plywood (20” long, 2” wide, ½” thick) glued to the board, 4 standard size (1 ¼” diameter) red wooden checkers, 5 No. 303 cans.

(see Jebsen 1969 for details)


Record the time necessary to complete each subtest (rounded the nearest second).


English and Portuguese.

Training Required

Does not require advanced training.


Can be found here.

The file above contains the administration details with verbal instructions for each task, the scoring instructions and a ready-to-use worksheet for data collection.

# of studies reporting psychometric properties: 2


  • Test results appear easy to interpret.
  • Norms for general population according to age, sex and hand (dominant or non-dominant) are available with the instruction manual.
  • Slow times reflect a less desirable performance.
  • No normative or published data has been reported for the SCI population.

MCID: not established in SCI
SEM: not established in SCI
MDC: not established in SCI


Test-retest reliability for the items ranged from Moderate to High (ranged from r = 0.60-0.99 (Pearson’s product-moment correlation)).

(Jebsen et al. 1969)


Correlation of the Jebsen Hand Function test is High with the overall Klein-Bell Scale score (Spearman’s r = -0.635) and Klein-Bell Scale–dressing subscale (Spearman’s r = -0.69), and Moderate with Klein-Bell Scale-bathing/hygiene subscale (-0.57) and Klein-Bell Scale-Eating subscale (-0.45).

(Lynch & Bridle 1989)


No values have been reported for the responsiveness of the Jebsen Hand Function Test for the SCI population at this time.

Floor/Ceiling Effect

No values were reported for the presence of floor/ceiling effects in the Jebsen Hand Function Test for the SCI population at this time.


Dr. Janice Eng, Marzena Zhou

Date Last Updated

23 March 2017

Bovend Eerdt TJH, Dawes H, Johansen-Berg H, Wade DT. Evaluation of the Modified Jebsen Test of Hand Function and the University of Maryland Arm Questionnaire for Stroke. Clinical Rehabilitation 2004; 18: 195-202.

Jebsen RH, Taylor N, Trieschmann RB, Trotter MH, Howard LA. An objective and standardized test of hand function. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1969;50:311-19.

Lynch KB, Bridle MJ. Validity of the Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test in Predicting Activities of Daily Living. The Occupational Therapy Journal of Research 1989; Volume 9, Number 5: 316-18.

Spaulding SJ, McPherson HH, Strachota E, Kuphal M, Ramponi M. Jebsen Hand Function Test: Performance of the Uninvolved Hand in Hemiplegia and of Right-handed, Right and Left Hemiplegic Persons. Arch Phys Rehabil 1988;69:419-22.

Stern EB. Stability of the Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test Across Three Test Sessions. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy 1992;46:647-49.