Akdemir H, Pasaoglu A, Ozturk F, Selcuklu A, Koc K, Kurtsoy A. Histopathology of experimental spinal cord trauma. Comparison of treatment with TRH, naloxone, and dexamethasone. Res Exp Med, 1992;192(3):177-183.
Alibai E, Zand F, Rahimi A, Rezaianzadeh A. Erythropoietin plus methylprednisolone or methylprednisolone in the treatment of acute spinal cord injury: a preliminary report. Acta Med Iran, 2014;52(4):275-279.
Allison DJ, Ditor DS. Immune dysfunction and chronic inflammation following spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord, 2015;53(1):14-18.
Amar AP, Levy ML. Surgical controversies in the management of spinal cord injury. J Am Coll Surgeons, 1999;188(5):550-566.
Anderson DK, Braughler JM, Hall ED, Waters TR, McCall JM, Means ED. Effects of treatment with U-74006F on neurological outcome following experimental spinal cord injury. J Neurosurg, 1988;69(4):562-567.
Baptiste DC, Fehlings MG. Pharmacological approaches to repair the injured spinal cord. J Neurotraum, 2006;23(3-4):318-334.
Barnes PJ. Corticosteroids: the drugs to beat. Eur J Pharmacol, 2006;533(1-3):2-14.
Bracken MB, Collins WF, Freeman DF, et al. Efficacy of methylprednisolone in acute spinal cord injury. JAMA, 1984;251(1):45-52.
Bracken MB, Shepard MJ, Collins WF, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of methylprednisolone or naloxone in the treatment of acute spinal-cord injury: results of the second national acute spinal cord injury study. New Engl J Med, 1990;322(20):1405-1411.
Bracken MB, Shepard MJ, Holford TR, et al. Administration of methylprednisolone for 24 or 48 hours or tirilazad mesylate for 48 hours in the treatment of acute spinal cord injury. Results of the Third National Acute Spinal Cord Injury Randomized Controlled Trial. National Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study. JAMA, 1997;277(20):1597-1604.
Bracken MB, Shepard MJ, Holford TR, et al. Methylprednisolone or tirilazad mesylate administration after acute spinal cord injury: 1-year follow up: results of the third national acute spinal cord injury randomized controlled trial. J Neurosurg, 1998;89(5):699-706.
Brooks BR, Sufit RL, Montgomery GK, Beaulieu DA, Erickson LM. Intravenous thyrotropin-releasing hormone in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Dose-response and randomized concurrent placebo-controlled pilot studies. Neurol Clin, 1987;5(1):143-158.
Burns SP, Golding DG, Rolle WA, Jr., Graziani V, Ditunno JF, Jr. Recovery of ambulation in motor-incomplete tetraplegia. Arch Phys Med Rehab, 1997;78(11):1169-1172.
Candelise L, Ciccone A. Gangliosides for acute ischemic stroke. Stroke, 2002;33(9):2336.
Casha S, Yu WR, Fehlings MG. Oligodendroglial apoptosis occurs along degenerating axons and is associated with FAS and p75 expression following spinal cord injury in the rat. Neuroscience, 2001;103(1):203-218.
Casha S, Zygun D, McGowan MD, Bains I, Yong VW, Hurlbert RJ. Results of a phase II placebo-controlled randomized trial of minocycline in acute spinal cord injury. Brain, 2012;135(Pt 4):1224-1236.
Chikuda H, Yasunaga H, Takeshita K, et al. Mortality and morbidity after high-dose methylprednisolone treatment in patients with acute cervical spinal cord injury: a propensity-matched analysis using a nationwide administrative database. Emerg Med J, 2014;31(3):201-206.
Chinnock P, Roberts I. Gangliosides for acute spinal cord injury. Cochrane DB Syst Rev, 2005;(2).
Christie SD, Comeau B, Myers T, Sadi D, Purdy M, Mendez I. Duration of lipid peroxidation after acute spinal cord injury in rats and the effect of methylprednisolone: laboratory investigation. Neurosurg Focus, 2008;25(5).
Coleman WP, Benzel E, Cahill DW, et al. A critical appraisal of the reporting of the National Acute Spinal Cord Injury Studies (II and III) of methylprednisolone in acute spinal cord injury. J Spinal Disord, 2000;13(3):185-199.
Ducker TB, Hamit HF. Experimental treatments of acute spinal cord injury. J Neurosurg, 1969;30:693–722.
Faden AI, Jacobs TP, Holaday JW. Opiate antagonist improves neurologic recovery after spinal injury. Science, 1981a;211(4481):493-494.
Faden AI, Jacobs TP, Holaday JW. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone improves neurologic recovery after spinal trauma in cats. New Engl J Med, 1981b;305(18):1063-1067.
Faden AI, Jacobs TP, Smith MT. Evaluation of the calcium channel antagonist nimodipine in experimental spinal cord ischemia. J Neurosurg, 1984a;60(4):796-799.
Faden AI, Jacobs TP, Smith MT. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone in experimental spinal injury: dose response and late treatment. Neurology, 1984b;34(10):1280-1284.
Faden AI, Jacobs TP, Smith MT, Holaday JW. Comparison of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), naloxone, and dexamethasone treatments in experimental spinal injury. Neurology, 1983;33(6):673-678.
Fehlings MG, Baptiste DC. Current status of clinical trials for acute spinal cord injury. Injury, 2005;36(Suppl 2):SB113-SB122.
Fehlings MG, Theodore N, Harrop J, et al. A phase I/IIa clinical trial of a recombinant Rho protein antagonist in acute spinal cord injury. J Neurotraum, 2011;28(5):787-796.
Feldblum S, Arnaud S, Simon M, Rabin O, D’Arbigny P. Efficacy of a new neuroprotective agent, gacyclidine, in a model of rat spinal cord injury. J Neurotraum, 2000;17(11):1079-1093.
Flamm ES, Young W, Collins WF, Piepmeier J, Clifton GL, Fischer B. A phase I trial of naloxone treatment in acute spinal cord injury. J Neurosurg, 1985;63(3):390-397.
Fleming JC, Norenberg MD, Ramsay DA, et al. The cellular inflammatory response in human spinal cords after injury. Brain, 2006;129(Pt 12):3249-3269.
Ford RW, Malm DN. Failure of nimodipine to reverse acute experimental spinal cord injury. Cent Nerv Syst Trauma, 1985;2(1):9-17.
Furlan JC, Fehlings MG. Cardiovascular complications after acute spinal cord injury: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management. Neurosurg Focus, 2008;25(5).
Galandiuk S, Raque G, Appel S, et al. The two-edged sword of large-dose steroids for spinal cord trauma. Ann Surg, 1993;218(4):419-427.
Gaviria M, Privat A, d’Arbigny P, Kamenka J, Haton H, Ohanna F. Neuroprotective effects of a novel NMDA antagonist, Gacyclidine, after experimental contusive spinal cord injury in adult rats. Brain Res, 2000;874(2):200-209.
Geisler FH, Coleman WP, Grieco G, Poonian D. Measurements and recovery patterns in a multicenter study of acute spinal cord injury. Spine, 2001a;26(24 Suppl):S68-S86.
Geisler FH, Coleman WP, Grieco G, Poonian D. Recruitment and early treatment in a multicenter study of acute spinal cord injury. Spine, 2001b;26(24 Suppl):S58-S67.
Geisler FH, Coleman WP, Grieco G, Poonian D. The Sygen® multicenter acute spinal cord injury study. Spine, 2001c;26(24 Suppl):S87-S100.
Geisler FH, Dorsey FC, Coleman WP. Recovery of motor function after spinal-cord injury – a randomized, placebo-controlled trial with GM-1 ganglioside. New Engl J Med, 1991;324(26):1829-1838.
Geisler FH, Dorsey FC, Coleman WP. GM-1 ganglioside in human spinal cord injury. J Neurotraum, 1992;(9 Suppl 2):S517-530.
George ER, Scholten DJ, Buechler CM, et al. Failure of methylprednisolone to improve the outcome of spinal cord injuries. Am Surgeon, 1995;61(8):659-664.
Gerhart KA, Johnson RL, Menconi J, Hoffman RE, Lammertse DP. Utilization and effectiveness of methylprednisolone in a population-based sample of spinal cord injured persons. Paraplegia, 1995;33(6):316-321.
Gerndt SJ, Rodriguez JL, Pawlik JW, et al. Consequences of high-dose steroid therapy for acute spinal cord injury. J Trauma, 1997;42(2):279-284.
Grossman RG, Fehlings MG, Frankowski RF, et al. A prospective, multicenter, Phase i matched-comparison group trial of safety, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary efficacy of riluzole in patients with traumatic spinal cord injury. J Neurotraum, 2014;31(3):239-255.
Guzmán-Lenis MS, Navarro X, Casas C. Drug screening of neuroprotective agents on an organotypic-based model of spinal cord excitotoxic damage. Restor Neurol Neuros, 2009;27(4):335-349.
Hall ED. Effects of the 21-aminosteroid U74006F on posttraumatic spinal cord ischemia in cats. J Neurosurg, 1988;68(3):462-465.
Hall ED. The neuroprotective pharmacology of methylprednisolone. J Neurosurg, 1992;76(1):13-22.
Hall ED. Drug development in spinal cord injury: what is the FDA looking for? J Rehabil Res Dev, 2003;40(4 Suppl 1):81-91.
Hall ED, Springer JE. Neuroprotection and acute spinal cord Injury: a reappraisal. NeuroRx, 2004;1(1):80-100.
Hashimoto T, Fukuda N. Effect of thyrotropin-releasing hormone on the neurologic impairment in rats with spinal cord injury: treatment starting 24 h and 7 days after injury. Eur J Pharmacol, 1991;203(1):25-32.
Heary RF, Vaccaro AR, Mesa JJ, et al. Steroids and gunshot wounds to the spine. Neurosurgery, 1997;41(3):576-584.
Holtz A, Gerdin B. Blocking weight-induced spinal cord injury in rats: therapeutic effect of the 21-aminosteroid U74006F. J Neurotraum, 1991;8(4):239-245.
Holtz A, Gerdin B. Efficacy of the 21-aminosteroid U74006F in improving neurological recovery after spinal cord injury in rats. Neurol Res, 1992;14(1):49-52.
Hong Z, Hong H, Chen H, Wang Z, Hong D. Investigation of the protective effect of erythropoietin on spinal cord injury in rats. Exp Ther Med, 2011;2(5):837-841.
Hurlbert J. Methylprednisolone for acute spinal cord injury: an inappropriate standard of care. J Neurosurg, 2000;93(1 Suppl):1-7.
Ito Y, Sugimoto Y, Tomioka M, Kai N, Tanaka M. Does high dose methylprednisolone sodium succinate really improve neurological status in patient with acute cervical cord injury?: a prospective study about neurological recovery and early complications. Spine, 2009;34(20):2121-2124.
Kamiya K, Koda M, Furuya T, et al. Neuroprotective therapy with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in acute spinal cord injury: a comparison with high-dose methylprednisolone as a historical control. Eur Spine J, 2014;24(5):963-967.
Kan EM, Ling EA, Lu J. Stem cell therapy for spinal cord injury. Curr Med Chem, 2010;17(36):4492-4510.
Kavanagh RJ, Kam PCA. Lazaroids: efficacy and mechanism of action of the 21-aminosteroids in neuroprotection. Brit J Anaesth, 2001;86(1):110-119.
Kigerl K, Popovich P. Drug evaluation: ProCord – a potential cell-based therapy for spinal cord injury. IDrugs, 2006;9(5):354-360.
Kirshblum SC, Groah SL, McKinley WO, Gittler MS, Stiens SA. Spinal cord injury medicine. 1. Etiology, classification, and acute medical management. Arch Phys Med Rehab, 2002;83(3 Suppl 1):S50-S57.
Kiwerski JE. Application of dexamethasone in the treatment of acute spinal cord injury. Injury, 1993;24(7):457-460.
Koda M, Nishio Y, Kamada T, et al. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilizes bone marrow-derived cells into injured spinal cord and promotes functional recovery after compression-induced spinal cord injury in mice. Brain Res, 2007;1149:223-231.
Krassioukov A. Autonomic function following cervical spinal cord injury. Resp Physiol Neurobi, 2009;169(2):157-164.
Kwon BK, Roy J, Lee JHT, et al. Magnesium chloride in a polyethylene glycol formulation as a neuroprotective therapy for acute spinal cord injury: preclinical refinement and optimization. J Neurotraum, 2009;26(8):1379-1393.
Lee BH, Lee KH, Yoon DH, et al. Effects of methylprednisolone on the neural conduction of the motor evoked potentials in spinal cord injured rats. J Korean Med Sci, 2005;20(1):132-138.
Lee HC, Cho DY, Lee WY, Chuang HC. Pitfalls in treatment of acute cervical spinal cord injury using high-dose methylprednisolone: a retrospect audit of 111 patients. Surg Neurol, 2007;68(5 Suppl):S37-S41.
Levy ML, Gans W, Wijesinghe HS, SooHoo WE, Adkins RH, Stillerman CB. Use of methylprednisolone as an adjunct in the management of patients with penetrating spinal cord injury: outcome analysis. Neurosurgery, 1996;39(6):1141-1149.
Lewen A, Matz P, Chan PH. Free radical pathways in CNS injury. J Neurotraum, 2000;17(10):871-890.
Leypold BG, Flanders AE, Schwartz ED, Burns AS. The impact of methylprednisolone on lesion severity following spinal cord injury. Spine, 2007;32(3):373-378.
Liu XZ, Xu XM, Hu R, et al. Neuronal and glial apoptosis after traumatic spinal cord injury. J Neurosci, 1997;17(14):5395-5406.
Mack EH. Neurogenic Shock. Open Pediatr Med Journal, 2013;7(Suppl 1: M4):16-18.
Marshall LF, Maas AI, Marshall SB, et al. A multicenter trial on the efficacy of using tirilazad mesylate in cases of head injury. J Neurosurg, 1998;89(4):519-525.
Matis GK, Birbilis TA. Erythropoietin in spinal cord injury. Eur Spine J, 2009;18(3):314-323.
Matsumoto T, Tamaki T, Kawakami M, Yoshida M, Ando M, Yamada H. Early complications of high-dose methylprednisolone sodium succinate treatment in the follow-up of acute cervical spinal cord injury. Spine, 2001;26(4):426-430.
McKerracher L, Guertin P. Rho as a target to promote repair: translation to clinical studies with cethrin. Curr Pharm Design, 2013;19(24):4400-4410.
Merry WH, Cogbill TH, Annis BL, Lambert PJ. Functional outcome after incomplete spinal cord injuries due to blunt injury. Injury, 1996;27(1):17-20.
Mocchetti I. Exogenous gangliosides, neuronal plasticity and repair, and the neurotrophins. Cell Mol Life Sci, 2005;62(19-20):2283-2294.
Nesathurai S. Steroids and spinal cord injury: revisiting the NASCIS 2 and NASCIS 3 trials. J Trauma, 1998;45(6):1088-1093.
Nishio Y, Koda M, Kamada T, et al. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor attenuates neuronal death and promotes functional recovery after spinal cord injury in mice. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol, 2007;66(8):724-731.
Noonan VK, Fingas M, Farry A, et al. Incidence and prevalence of spinal cord injury in Canada: a national perspective. Neuroepidemiology, 2012;38(4):219-226.
Okutan O, Solaroglu I, Beskonakli E, Taskin Y. Recombinant human erythropoietin decreases myeloperoxidase and caspase-3 activity and improves early functional results after spinal cord injury in rats. J Clin Neurosci, 2007;14(4):364-368.
Oyinbo CA. Secondary injury mechanisms in traumatic spinal cord injury: a nugget of this multiply cascade. Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars), 2011;71(2):281-299.
Petitjean ME, Pointillart V, Dixmerias F, et al. [Medical treatment of spinal cord injury in the acute stage]. Ann Fr Anesth, 1998;17(2):114-122.
Pettersson K, Toolanen G. High-dose methylprednisolone prevents extensive sick leave after whiplash injury. A prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Spine (Phila Pa 1976), 1998;23(9):984-989.
Pickett GE, Campos-Benitez M, Keller JL, Duggal N. Epidemiology of traumatic spinal cord injury in Canada. Spine (Phila Pa 1976), 2006;31(7):799-805.
Pitts LH, Ross A, Chase GA, Faden AI. Treatment with thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in patients with traumatic spinal cord injuries. J Neurotraum, 1995;12(3):235-243.
Pointillart V, Petitjean ME, Wiart L, et al. Pharmacological therapy of spinal cord injury during the acute phase. Spinal Cord, 2000;38(2):71-76.
Pollard ME, Apple DF. Factors associated with improved neurologic outcomes in patients with incomplete tetraplegia. Spine, 2003;28(1):33-38.
Popa C, Popa F, Grigorean VT, et al. Vascular dysfunctions following spinal cord injury. J Med Life, 2010;3(3):275-285.
Poynton AR, O’Farrell DA, Shannon F, Murray P, McManus F, Walsh MG. An evaluation of the factors affecting neurological recovery following spinal cord injury. Injury, 1997;28(8):545-548.
Prendergast MR, Saxe JM, Ledgerwood AM, et al. Massive steroids do not reduce the zone of injury after penetrating spinal cord injury. J Traum, 1994;37(4):576-580.
Qian T, Guo X, Levi AD, Vanni S, Shebert RT, Sipski ML. High-dose methylprednisolone may cause myopathy in acute spinal cord injury patients. Spinal Cord, 2005;43(4):199-203.
Rasool T, Wani MA, Kirmani AR, et al. Role of methylprednisolone in acute cervical cord injuries. Indian J Surg, 2004;66(3):156-159.
Ross IB, Tator CH. Further studies of nimodipine in experimental spinal cord injury in the rat. J Neurotraum, 1991;8(4):229-238.
Sadowsky C, Volshteyn O, Schultz L, McDonald JW. Spinal cord injury. Disabil Rehabil, 2002;24(13):680-687.
Schneider A, Kuhn HG, Schabitz WR. A role for G-CSF (granulocyte-colony stimulating factor) in the central nervous system. Cell Cycle, 2005;4(12):1753-1757.
Schneider JS. GM1 ganglioside in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Ann NY Acad Sci, 1998;845:363-373.
Schwartz G, Fehlings MG. Evaluation of the neuroprotective effects of sodium channel blockers after spinal cord injury: improved behavioral and neuroanatomical recovery with riluzole. J Neurosurg, 2001;94(2 Suppl):245-256.
Sharif-Alhoseini M, Rahimi-Movaghar V. Animal Models in Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury. In Y. Dionyssiotis (Ed.), Topics in Paraplegia: InTech. 2014.
Short DJ, El Masry WS, Jones PW. High dose methylprednisolone in the management of acute spinal cord injury – a systematic review from a clinical perspective. Spinal Cord, 2000;38(5):273-286.
Singh A, Tetreault L, Kalsi-Ryan S, Nouri A, Fehlings MG. Global prevalence and incidence of traumatic spinal cord injury. Clin Epidemiol, 2014;6:309-331.
Siren AL, Fratelli M, Brines M, et al. Erythropoietin prevents neuronal apoptosis after cerebral ischemia and metabolic stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2001;98(7):4044-4049.
Suberviola B, González-Castro A, Llorca J, Ortiz-Melón F, Miñambres E. Early complications of high-dose methylprednisolone in acute spinal cord injury patients. Injury,2008; 39(7):748-752.
Tadie M, Gaviria M, Mathe J, et al. Early care and treatment with a neuroprotective drug, gacyclidine, in patients with acute spinal cord injury. Rachis, 2003;15:363-376.
Takahashi H, Yamazaki M, Okawa A, et al. Neuroprotective therapy using granulocyte colony-stimulating factor for acute spinal cord injury: a phase I/IIa clinical trial. Eur Spine J, 2012;21(12):2580-2587.
Tanadini LG, Steeves JD, Hothorn T, et al. Identifying homogeneous subgroups in neurological disorders: unbiased recursive partitioning in cervical complete spinal cord injury. Neurorehab Neural Re, 2014;28(6):507-515.
Tator CH. Biology of neurological recovery and functional restoration after spinal cord injury. Neurosurgery, 1998;42(4):696-708.
Tator CH, Hashimoto R, Raich A, et al. Translational potential of preclinical trials of neuroprotection through pharmacotherapy for spinal cord injury. Journal of neurosurgery. Spine, 17(1 Suppl), 2012;157-229.
Tsutsumi S, Ueta T, Shiba K, Yamamoto S, Takagishi K. Effects of the second national acute spinal cord injury study of high-dose methylprednisolone therapy on acute cervical spinal cord injury – results in spinal injuries center. Spine, 2006;31(26):2992-2996.
Vaquero J, Zurita M, Oya S, Aguayo C, Bonilla C. Early administration of methylprednisolone decreases apoptotic cell death after spinal cord injury. Histol Histopathol, 2006;21(10-12):1091-1102.
Wallace MC, Tator CH, Frazee P. Relationship between posttraumatic ischemia and hemorrhage in the injured rat spinal cord as shown by colloidal carbon angiography. Neurosurgery, 1986;18(4):433-439.
Waxman SG. Demyelination in spinal cord injury. J Neurol Sci, 1989;91(1-2):1-14.
Wilson JR, Fehlings MG. Riluzole for acute traumatic spinal cord injury: a promising neuroprotective treatment strategy. World Neurosurg, 2014;81(5-6):825-829.
Wu YT, Li TY, Chu HY, Chen LC, Chiang SL, Chang ST. Relationship between the interval before high-dose methylprednisolone administration and chronic pain in traumatic spinal cord injury. Neurosciences, 2011;16(4):324-328.
Xiong M, Chen S, Yu H, Liu Z, Zeng Y, Li F. Neuroprotection of erythropoietin and methylprednisolone against spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury. J Huazhong Univ Sci, 2011;31(5):652-656.
Yong VW, Wells J, Giuliani F, Casha S, Power C, Metz LM. The promise of minocycline in neurology. Lancet Neurol, 2004;3(12):744-751.
Young W, Flamm ES, Demopoulos HB, Tomasula JJ, DeCrescito V. Effect of naloxone on posttraumatic ischemia in experimental spinal contusion. J Neurosurg, 1981;55(2):209-219.
Yu RK, Tsai YT, Ariga T. Functional roles of gangliosides in neurodevelopment: an overview of recent advances. Neurochem Res, 2012;37(6):1230-1244.
Zhuang C, Wang L, Xu Y. Early methylprednisolone impact treatment for sensory and motor function recovery in patients with acute spinal cord injury: a self-control study. Neural Regen Res, 2008;3(5):577-580.