Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS / ZSDS)

Download Clinical Summary PDF

Tool Description

  • The Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) is a well-established self-report screening measure of adult depression severity. It has been used in a variety of mental health areas including primary care, psychiatric, drug trials, and related clinical, institutional, and research settings
  • In some clinical applications the Beck Depression Inventory or the PHQ-9 may be preferable as they survey a two week period and include an item specific to suicidal ideation (this is consistent with DSM–IV criteria for major depression).
  • Some items on the Zung SDS may be sensitive to individuals with SCI
  • Easy to administer and score.  The positive and negative item wording may be confusing for some individuals.

ICF Domain:

Body Function – Subcategory: Mental Functions

Number of Items:

20

You Will Need:

Approximately 10 minutes to have the person complete 20 items

Scoring:

  • Symptoms “over the past several days” are rated according to a 4-point (1 to 4) ordinal scale:
    1) Little or none of the time;
    2) Some of the time;
    3) A large part of the time;
    4) Most or all of the time.
  • Half the items are worded positively and half are worded negatively (total possible of 80 points). Positive items are reverse-scored.
  • Higher scores indicate increased depressive symptoms.

Equipment: None.

Interpretability

MCID: not established for SCI
SEM: not established for SCI
MDC: not established for SCI

  • Scores over 50 suggest depression. Scores over 69 indicating severe depression.
  • No normative data or cut-points have been reported for the SCI population
  • Published data for the SCI population is available for comparison (see Interpretability section of the Study Details sheet).

Languages:

English, Arabic, Azerbaijani, Dutch, German, Portuguese, Spanish.

Availability:

Freely available online at: http://healthnet.umassmed.edu/mhealth/ZungSelfRatedDepressionScale.pdf

Measurement Property Summary

# of studies reporting psychometric properties: 2

Reliability:

  • Internal consistency of the Zung Depression scale is High (Cronbach’s a=0.81).

[Tate et al. 1993]

Validity:

  • Correlation of the Zung total score is High with the Brief Symptom Inventory – global severity index (Pearson’s r=0.53) and the Brief Symptom Inventory – Depression scale (Pearson’s r=0.52).
  • Inter-correlations between the Medically-Based Emotional Distress Scale subscales and the Zung scale are Moderate to High (ranging from 0.31 to 0.72).

[Tate et al. 1993, Overholser et al. 1993]

Responsiveness:

No values were reported for the responsiveness of the Zung scale for the SCI population.

Floor/ceiling effect:

No values were reported for the presence of floor/ceiling effects in the Zung scale for the SCI population.

Reviewer

Dr. Vanessa Noonan, Matthew Querée

Date Last Updated:

July 26, 2016

Download the measure

Download Worksheet:
Freely available online at: http://healthnet.umassmed.edu/mhealth/ZungSelfRatedDepressionScale.pdf

Video

n/a

Scoring

Symptoms “over the past several days” are rated according to a 4-point (1 to 4) ordinal scale:
1) Little or none of the time;
2) Some of the time;
3) A large part of the time;
4) Most or all of the time.
Half the items are worded positively and half are worded negatively (total possible of 80 points). Positive items are reverse-scored.
Higher scores indicate increased depressive symptoms.

Equipment Needed

None

Zung:

Overholser JC, Schubert DSP, Foliart R, Frost F. Assessment of emotional distress following a spinal cord injury. Rehabilitation Psychology 1993; 38: 187-198.
http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/rep/38/3/187/

Tate D. Alcohol Use Among Spinal Cord Injured Patients. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 1993;72:175-183.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8363813

Tate DG, Forcheimer M, Maynard F, Davidoff G, Dijkers M. Comparing Two Measures of Depression in Spinal Cord Injury. Rehabil Psychol 1993;38:53-61.
http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/rep/38/1/53/

Zung WWK. A self-rating depression scale. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1965;12:63-70.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14221692