Wheelchair Outcome Measure (WhOM)

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Tool Description

The WhOM is a semi-structured interview/assessment focused on participation outcomes as identified by the participants. In Part I, participants identify their participation outcome goals (i.e. specific things that they want to do and achieve) at home and in the community, and they then rate the importance (Imp) of the goals and satisfaction (Sat) with their performance in reaching their goals. Part II consists of structured questions about their comfort, satisfaction with positioning, and skin breakdown.
This information is intended to be re-tested to:
1) Monitor a participant’s performance (post-intervention or over time);
2) To assist them in participating fully in their lives; and
3) Helping people to choose appropriate seating equipment.

ICF Domain:

Participation
Subcategory: Mobility, Community, Major Life Areas, General Tasks and Demands

Number of Items:

It depends on number of outcomes cited by participant

Brief Instructions for Administration & Scoring

Length: Approx. 30 minutes, number of items varies based on outcomes identified by the participant
Scoring: In part I, Imp and Sat are rated (0-10) for each identified activity. Sat x Imp score (0-100) for each activity is the product of the two values. Overall Sat and Sat x Imp scores are the means of the respective activity scores.
In part II, change (post-pre) scores can be calculated.

Interpretability

Minimal Detectable Change
Mean Satisfaction: 1.19-1.61
Mean Satisfaction x Importance: 15.02-16.27

Standard Error of Measurement:
Mean Satisfaction: 0.43-0.58
Mean Satisfaction x Importance: 5.42-5.87

(Miller et al. 2011)

Languages:

English, French, Farsi and Italian

Training Required:

No training required though good clinical interviewing skills are essential.

Availability:

Free of charge, but please download the WhOM and register at:

http://millerresearch.osot.ubc.ca/tools/mobility-outcome-tools-2/the-wheelchair-outcome-measure-whom/

Clinical Considerations

n/a

Measurement Property Summary

Reliability – HighValidity – Low to High

High Test-retest Reliability:
WhOM Sat ICC = 0.90
WhOM Sat x Imp ICC = 0.93
WhOM Body Function ICC = 0.83

(Alimohammad et al., 2016; N=75; no info on injury type; Farsi speakers, wheelchair as primary mobility device; mean (SD) time post-SCI = 60 (61) months)

High Inter-rater Reliability:

ICC = 0.99

(Alimohammad et al., 2016; N=75; no info on injury type; Farsi speakers, wheelchair as primary mobility device; mean (SD) time post-SCI = 60 (61) months)

Number of studies reporting reliability data: 3

Moderate correlation with Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM-III):
WhOM mean Sat: 0.338
WhOM mean Sat x Imp: 0.507

Low correlation with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II):
WhOM mean Sat: -0.220
WhOM mean Sat x Imp: -0.262

(Alimohammad et al., 2016; N=75 with SCI; no info on injury type; Farsi speakers, wheelchair as primary mobility device; mean (SD) time post-SCI = 60 (61) months)

Low to High correlation with Assessment of Life Habits (LIFE-H):

WhOM mean Sat: 0.18-0.62
WhOM mean Sat x Imp: 0.16-0.55

(Miller et al., 2011; N=50, 42 male, mixed injury types, mean (SD) time post-SCI = 16.1 (10.1) years)

Number of studies reporting validity data: 4

Reviewer

Dr. Ben Mortenson, Matthew Querée

Date Last Updated:

November 28, 2016

Download the measure

Download Worksheet:

Video

Scoring

Length: Approx. 30 minutes, number of items varies based on outcomes identified by the participant
Scoring: In part I, Imp and Sat are rated (0-10) for each identified activity. Sat x Imp score (0-100) for each activity is the product of the two values. Overall Sat and Sat x Imp scores are the means of the respective activity scores.
In part II, change (post-pre) scores can be calculated.
Training:
No training required though good clinical interviewing skills are essential.

Equipment Needed

None, unless scoring or demonstration for different chairs is required.

Alimohammad S, Parvaneh S, Ghahari S, Saberi H, Yekaninejad MS, Miller WC. Translation and validation of the Farsi version of the Wheelchair Outcome Measure (WhOM-Farsi) in individuals with spinal cord injury. Disabil Health J. 2016 Apr;9(2):265-71.

Auger C, Demers L, Gélinas I, Routhier F, Mortenson WB, Miller WC. Reliability and Validity of the Telephone Administration of the Wheelchair Outcome Measure (WhOM) for Middle-Aged and Older Users of Power Mobility Devices. J Rehabil Med. 2010 Jun;42(6):574-81.

Garden, J. A. (2009). Reliability and validity of the Wheelchair Outcome Measure (T). University of British Columbia. Retrieved from https://open.library.ubc.ca/cIRcle/collections/24/items/1.0067673 (Original work published 2009)

Miller WC, Garden J, Mortenson WB. Measurement properties of the wheelchair outcome measure in individuals with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2011 Sep; 49(9): 995-1000. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21577219

Mortenson WB, Miller WC, Miller-Polgar J. Measuring wheelchair intervention outcomes: development of the wheelchair outcome measure. Disabil Rehabil 2007; 2: 275–285. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17483100701475863?journalCode=iidt20

Parvaneh S, Mortenson WB, Miller WC. doi: 10.3109/17483107.2013.769126. Validating the wheelchair outcome measure for residents in long-term care. Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol. 2014 May;9(3):209-12.