Van Lieshout Test Short Version (VLT-SV)

Download Clinical Summary PDF

Tool Description

  • Originally developed to assess basic functional modalities of the arm and hand in individuals cervical SCIs.
  • Assesses positioning and stabilization of the arms, opening and closing of the functional hand, grasping and releasing of the hands, and manipulation of the thumbs and fingers.
  • Tasks include:
    1) arch task
    2) forward reaching
    3) thumb opening
    4) finger opening
    5) grasp function of the thumb
    6) thumb strength
    7) finger strength
    8) pen grip
    9) opening a bottle
    10) lighting a match.

ICF Domain:

Activity – subcategory: Mobility.

Number of Items:

10

Brief Instructions for Administration & Scoring

Administration:

  • Clinician-administered standardized performance test.
  • All tasks are performed while the patient is seated in their wheelchair for the “best hand” only.
  • The VLT-SV is scored on a 6-point scale, where 0 = task was not possible, and 5 = highest level of accomplishment. Individual item scores take into account the:

1) ability to complete the task;
2) behavioral quality of performance (e.g./accuracy of task completion);
3) independence in performing the task without using external support (e.g./assistance of the contra-lateral arm).

  • Administration time is usually 25-35 minutes.

Equipment:

  • Current published literature does not provide details about standardization of the test (e.g./ table heights, distance of reaching tasks, etc.)

Scoring:

  • A total score may be calculated by summing the scores of all 10 items.

Interpretability

MCID: not established
SEM: not established
MDC: not established

  • Total scores range from 0 to 50 with higher scores indicating greater functional ability.
  • No normative data or cut-points have been established for the SCI population
  • Published data for the SCI population is available for comparison (see Interpretability section of the Study Details sheet).

Languages:

English, German, Dutch.

The test’s measurement properties have only been assessed for the Dutch version. English and German versions are available but the measurement properties have yet to be tested.

Training Required:

None, but should be administered by a skilled therapist.

Availability:

See the ‘How-to use’ page of this tool.

Clinical Considerations

  • The VLT-SV was developed with the cervical SCI population in mind, implying appropriate item selection / challenge. During administration of the test, the patient and clinician together identify the best way to complete the task.

Measurement Property Summary

# of studies reporting psychometric properties: 2

Reliability:

  • Internal consistency of the VLT-SV is High for both the left hand (Cronbach’s a=0.88) and right hand (Cronbach’s a=0.94).
  • Inter-rater reliability is High for both the left hand (ICC=0.98) and right hand (ICC=0.99).

[Post et al. 2006]

Validity:

  • Correlation between left and right hand VLT-SV score is Moderate (Spearman’s r=0.50)
  • Correlation between the Grasp and Release Test and VLT-SV is High for both left hand (Spearman’s r=0.87) and right hand (Spearman’s r=0.90).

[Post et al. 2006]

Responsiveness:

  • There was a significant difference in VLT-SV scores across 3 measurement points (t1 = start of rehab, t2= 3 months after start of rehab, t3 = discharge).

[Spooren et al. 2006]

Floor/ceiling effect:

No values were reported for the presence of floor/ceiling effects in the VLT-SV for the SCI population.

Reviewer

Dr. William Miller, Christie Chan

Date Last Updated:

Feb 1, 2013

Download the measure

Download Worksheet:

Worksheet Document

Video

n/a

Scoring

n/a

Equipment Needed

VLT-SV:

Franke AC, Snoek GJ, De groot S, Nene AV, Spooren AI, Post MW. Arm hand skilled performance in persons with a cervical spinal cord injury--long-term follow-up. Spinal Cord. 2013;51(2):161-4.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22986678

Post MWM, van Lieshout F, Seelen HAM, Snoek GJ, IJzerman MJ, Pons C. Measurement properties of the short version of the Van Lieshout test for arm/hand function of persons with tetraplegia after spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2006; 44: 763-771
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16773040

Spooren AI, Janssen-Potten YJ, Post MW, Kerckhofs E, Nene A, Seelen HA. Measuring change in arm hand skilled performance in persons with a cervical spinal cord injury: responsiveness of the Van Lieshout Test. Spinal Cord 2006; 44: 772-779.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16819555