Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM)

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Tool Description

  • Disability scale developed to specifically address the ability of SCI patients to perform basic activities of daily living independently.
  • Three versions of the SCIM (I-III) have been consecutively developed and assess three areas:
    1) self-care (feeding, grooming, bathing, and dressing)
    2) respiration and sphincter management
    3) mobility (bed and transfers and indoor/outdoor)
    The item scores are weighted related to the assumed clinical relevance.

ICF Domain:

Activity – Subcategory: Self-Care.

Number of Items:

19

Brief Instructions for Administration & Scoring

Administration:

  • Clinician-administered; a clinician scores the items based on the activities the patient is performing during the regular daily activities or as the patient reports in an interview.
  • Administration time is usually 30-45 minutes.

 

Equipment: None.

Scoring:

  • Scores are derived by adding up the items producing a total score (0 to 100) and/or subscale scores (self care: 0-20; respiration and sphincter management: 0-40; mobility 0-40).
  • Item response categories vary from item to item; ranging from 0-2 to 0-15.

Interpretability

MCID: not established for SCIM I, II or III for SCI
SEM: not established for SCIM I, II or III for SCI
MDC: not established for SCIM I, II or III for SCI

  • Higher scores reflect higher levels of independence.
  • No cut points or norms have been established for the SCI population.
  • Published data is available for comparison (see Interpretability section of the Study Details sheet).

Languages:

English and Turkish.

Training Required:

None.

Availability:

See the ‘How-to use’ page of this tool.

Clinical Considerations

  • The SCIM is quickly becoming one of the most frequently used research tools within the SCI population and has high clinical relevance for the rehabilitation for individuals with either traumatic/non-traumatic and complete/incomplete SCI.
  • Ceiling and floor effects (especially floor) may be an issue for individuals at either who have very high or low level lesions.
  • Minimal staff/patient burden is required as the variables collected are important to patient care, reflect basic areas of patient concern, and are routinely collected as a component of standard practice.

Measurement Property Summary

SCIM

# of studies reporting psychometric properties: 3

Reliability: (N=1) [Catz et al. 1997]

  • Total inter-rater agreement on the various individual SCIM items ranged from 72-99%
  • Total agreement was higher than 85% (Kappa coefficients ranged between 0.66-0.98).

Validity: (N=3) [Catz et al. 1997, Catz et al. 2001, Morganti et al. 2005]

  • Correlation of the SCIM is high with the:
    • Functional Independence Measure (Spearman’s r=0.80)
    • Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (Spearman’s r=0.97)
    • Rivermead Mobility Index (Spearman’s r=0.75)
    • Barthel Index (Spearman’s r=0.70).

Responsiveness: (N=1) [Catz et al. 1997]

  • The SCIM was found to be more sensitive than the FIM to changes in function in individuals with SCI. The SCIM detected all functional changes detected by the FIM, and more.

Floor/ceiling effect:

No values were reported for the presence of floor/ceiling effects in the 4FTPSMW for the SCI population.

SCIM II

# of studies reporting psychometric properties: 7

Reliability:

  • Inter-rater reliability was high for the SCIM subscales (r=0.797-0.82), and the total SCIM (r=0.903-0.99).
  • Correlation between interviewer and observation scores were moderate to high (r=0.69-0.96).

[Catz et al. 2001, Itzkovich et al. 2003]

Validity:

  • Correlation of the SCIM II was high with the:
    • Berg Balance Scale (Spearman’s r=0.89)
    • Walking Index of Spinal Cord Injury (Spearman’s r=0.81)
    • 10-Meter Walk Test (Spearman’s r=0.89)
    • Falls Efficacy Scale (FES-I) (Spearman’s r=-0.78).

[Wirz et al. 2010, Itzkovich et al. 2002, Van Hedel et a. 2009, Kalsi-Ryan et al. 2012]

Responsiveness:

  • In ASIA A subjects, the SRM values were higher for the SCIM II items compared with the walking capacity tests.
  • The greatest improvements in mobility occurred within the first month, but predominantly between 1 and 3 months.
  • Between 6 and 12 months, only minimal changes were observed.
  • There were similar observations in the ASIA B subjects, although these subjects showed more improvement between 6 and 12 months compared with ASIA A subjects.
  • In ASIA C subjects, the internal responsiveness values were largest between 1 and 3 months. Good internal responsiveness was also observed within the first month and between 3 and 6 months.

[Wirth et al. 2008, van Hedel et a. 2009]

Floor/ceiling effect:

  • The median SCIM II score for mobility indoors and mobility over moderate distances reached a ceiling effect at 3 months for complete paraplegia and 6 months for complete quadriplegia.

[Wirth et al. 2008]

SCIM III

# of studies reporting psychometric properties: 7

Reliability:

  • Internal consistency of the SCIM III is high (Cronbach’s a=0.77-0.91).
  • Inter-rater reliability is high for SCIM total (ICC=0.956), as well as all SCIM subscales: self-care (ICC=0.941), respiration/sphincter (ICC=0.844), mobility in the room (ICC=0.961) and mobility indoors/outdoors (ICC=0.945).

[Itzkovich et al. 2007, Catz et al. 2007, Glass et al. 2009, Bluvshtein et al. 2011, Invernizzi et al. 2010, Anderson et al. 2011]

Validity:

  • Correlation of the SCIM III is high with the Functional Independence Measure (Pearson’s r=0.779-0.91).

[Itzkovich et al. 2007, Catz et al. 2007, Glass et al. 2009, Bluvshtein et al. 2011, Invernizzi et al. 2010, Anderson et al. 2011]

Responsiveness:

  • The ability to identify a 1-point change (admission to discharge) within the 4 areas of SCIM-III in comparison with the total FIMTMscore were compared using the McNemar test. SCIM-III detected more numerous changes than FIMTMin 3 of the 4 areas; self-care, respiration and sphincter management, and mobility indoors and outdoors, but not mobility in the room and toilet. The differences between the 2 scales’ responsiveness to changes are not statistically significant.

[Itzkovich et al. 2007, Glass et al. 2009, Bluvshtein et al. 2011, Anderson et al. 2011]

Floor/ceiling effect:

  • Ceiling effects were observed in 3 items: Feeding & grooming, Respiration, Bed mobility
  • Floor effects were observed in 11 items: Feeding & grooming, Bathing upper & lower body, Dressing upper body, Dressing lower body, Use of toilet, Bed mobility, Transfer Bed-wheelchair, Transfer wheelchair-toilet-tub, Stair management, Transfer wheelchair-car, and Transfer Wheel-chair ground.

[Ackerman et al. 2010, Glass et al. 2009, Anderson et al. 2011]

Reviewer

Dr. Ben Mortenson, John Zhu, Jeremy Mak, Kyle Diab

Date Last Updated:

Mar 2, 2017

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Worksheet Document

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Scoring

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Equipment Needed

SCIM:

Catz A, Itzkovich M, Agranov E, Ring H, Tamir A. SCIM--spinal cord independence measure: a new disability scale for patients with spinal cord lesions. Spinal Cord 1997;35:850-856.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9429264

Catz A, Itzkovich M, Agranov E, Ring H, Tamir A. The spinal cord independence measure (SCIM): sensitivity to functional changes in subgroups of spinal cord lesion patients. Spinal Cord 2001a;39:97-100.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11402366

Catz A, Itzkovich M, Steinberg F, Philo O, Ring H, Ronen J, Spasser R, Gepstein R, Tamir A. The Catz-Itzkovich SCIM: a revised version of the Spinal Cord Independence Measure. Disabil Rehabil 2001b;23:263-268.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11336099

Catz A, Itzkovich M, Steinberg F, Philo O, Ring H, Ronen J, Spasser R, Gepstein R, Tamir A. Disability assessment by a single rater or a team: a comparative study with the Catz-Itzkovich spinal cord independence measure. J Rehabil Med 2002;34:226-230.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12392238

Catz A, Goldin D, Fishel B, Ronen J, Bluvshtein V, Gelernter I. Recovery of neurologic function following nontraumatic spinal cord lesions in Israel. Spine 2004;29:2278-2282.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12195063

Catz A, Greenberg E, Itzkovich M, Bluvshtein V, Ronen J, Gelernter I. A new instrument for outcome assessment in rehabilitation medicine: Spinal cord injury ability realization measurement index. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004;85:399-404.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15031824

Catz A, Itzkovich M, Tesio L, Biering-Sørensen F, Weeks C, Laramee M, Craven BC, Tonack M, Hitzig SL, Glazer E, Zeilig G, Aito S, Scivoletto G, Mecci M, Chadwick RJ, El Masry WS, Osman A, Glass CA, Silva P, Soni BM, Gardner BP, Savic G, Bergstrom EM, Bluvshtein V, Ronen J. A multi-center International Study on the Spinal Cord Independence Measure, Version III: Rasch psychometric validation. Spinal Cord Resubmission requested 2006.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16909143

Glass CA, Tesio L, Itzkovich M, Soni BM, Silva P, Mecci M, Chadwick R, et al. Spinal Cord Independence Measure, Version III: Applicability to the UK spinal cord injured population. J Rehabil Med 2009; 41: 723-728.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19774305

Grijalva I, Guizar-Sahagun G, Castaneda-Hernandez G, Mino D, Maldonado-Julian H, Vidal-Cantu G, Ibarra A, Serra O, Salgado-Ceballos H, Arenas-Hernandez R. Efficacy and safety of 4-aminopyridine in patients with long-term spinal cord injury: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Pharmacotherapy 2003;23:823-834.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12885095

Itzkovich M, Tripolski M, Zeilig G, Ring H, Rosentul N, Ronen J, Spasser R, Gepstein R, Catz A. Rasch analysis of the Catz-Itzkovich spinal cord independence measure. Spinal Cord 2002;40:396-407.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12124666

Itzkovich M, Tamir A, Philo O, Steinberg F, Ronen J, Spasser R, Gepstein R, Ring H, Catz A. Reliability of the Catz-Itzkovich Spinal Cord Independence Measure assessment by interview and comparison with observation. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2003;82:267-272.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12649651

Itzkovich M, Catz A, Biering-Sørensen F. SCIM III Reliability And Validity: A Multi-Center International Study. ISCoS Meeting Oct 2005 Munich, Germany Abs 34/8
http://www.iscos.org.uk/index.html

Jackson AB, Dijkers M, DeVivo MJ, Poczatek RB. A demographic profile of new traumatic spinal cord injuries: change and stability over 30 years. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004;85:1740-1748.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15520968

McKinley WO, Seel RT, Gadi RK, Tewksbury MA. Nontraumatic vs. traumatic spinal cord injury: a rehabilitation outcome comparison. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2001;80:693-699.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11523972

Morganti B, Scivoletto G, Ditunno P, Ditunno JF, Molinari M. Walking Index for spinal cord injury (WISCI): criterion validation. Spinal Cord 2005;43:27-33.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15520841

Popovic MR, Thrasher TA, Adams ME, Takes V, Zivanovic V, Tonack MI. Functional electrical therapy: retraining grasping in spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2006;44:143-151.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16130018

Ronen J, Itzkovich M, Bluvshtein V, Thaleisnik M, Goldin D, Gelernter I, David R, Gepstein R, Catz A. Length of stay in hospital following spinal cord lesions in Israel. Spinal Cord 2004;42:353-358.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14968104

Scivoletto G, Morganti B, Ditunno P, Ditunno JF, Molinari M. Effects on age on spinal cord lesion patients' rehabilitation. Spinal Cord 2003;41:457-464.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12883544

van Hedel HJA, Dietz V, and the EM-SCI Study Group. Walking during daily life can be validly and responsively assessed in subjects with a spinal cord injury Walking during daily life can be validly and responsively assessed in subjects with a spinal cord injury. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2009; 23: 117-124.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18997156

van Hedel HJA for the EMSCI Study Group. Gait speed in relation to categories of functional ambulation after spinal cord injury. Neural Repair 2009; 23(4): 343-350.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19036717

Wirz M, Muller R, Bastiaenen C. Falls in Persons With Spinal Cord Injury: Validity and Reliability of the Berg Balance Scale. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2010 24: 70; DOI: 10.1177/1545968309341059
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19675123

 

SCIM II:

Catz A, Itzkovich M, Agranov E, Ring H, Tamir A. The spinal cord independence measure (SCIM): sensitivity to functional changes in subgroups of spinal cord lesion patients. Spinal Cord 2001a;39:97-100.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11402366

Catz A, Itzkovich M, Steinberg F, Philo O, Ring H, Ronen J, Spasser R, Gepstein R, Tamir A. The Catz-Itzkovich SCIM: a revised version of the Spinal Cord Independence Measure. Disabil Rehabil 2001b;23:263-268.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11336099

Itzkovich M, Tripolski M, Zeilig G, Ring H, Rosentul N, Ronen J, Spasser R, Gepstein R, Catz A. Rasch analysis of the Catz-Itzkovich spinal cord independence measure. Spinal Cord 2002;40:396-407.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12124666

Itzkovich M, Tamir A, Philo O, Steinberg F, Ronen J, Spasser R, Gepstein R, Ring H, Catz A. Reliability of the Catz-Itzkovich Spinal Cord Independence Measure assessment by interview and comparison with observation. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2003;82:267-272.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12649651

Kalsi-Ryan S, Beaton D, Curt A, Duff S, Popovic MR, Rudhe C, Fehlings MG, Verrier MC. The Graded Redefined Assessment of Strength Sensibility and Prehension: Reliability and Validity. Journal of Neurotrauma, 2012; 29: 905-914.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21568688

van Hedel HJA, Dietz V, and the EM-SCI Study Group. Walking during daily life can be validly and responsively assessed in subjects with a spinal cord injury. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2009; 23: 117-124.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18997156

van Hedel HJA for the EMSCI Study Group. Gait speed in relation to categories of functional ambulation after spinal cord injury. Neural Repair 2009; 23(4): 343-350.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19036717

Wirth B, van Hedel HJA, Kometer B, Dietz V, Curt A. Changes in activity after a complete spinal cord injury as measured by the Spinal Cord Independence Measure II (SCIM II). Neurorehabil Neural Repair, 2008; 22:145-153.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17761810

Wirz M, Muller R, Bastiaenen C. Falls in Persons With Spinal Cord Injury: Validity and Reliability of the Berg Balance Scale. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2010 24: 70; DOI: 10.1177/1545968309341059
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19675123

 

SCIM III:

Ackerman P, Morrison SA, McDowel S, Vazquez L. Using the Spinal Cord Independence Measure III to measure functional recovery in a post-acute spinal cord injury program.   Spinal Cord, 2010; 48:380-387.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19884897

Aguilar-rodríguez M, Peña-pachés L, Grao-castellote C, Torralba-collados F, Hervás-marín D, Giner-pascual M. Adaptation and validation of the Spanish self-report version of the Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM III). Spinal Cord. 2015;53(6):451-4.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25510190

Alimohammad S, Parvaneh S, Ghahari S, Saberi H, Yekaninejad MS, Miller WC. Translation and validation of the Farsi version of the Wheelchair Outcome Measure (WhOM-Farsi) in individuals with spinal cord injury. Disabil Health J. 2016;9(2):265-71.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26586171

Almeida Cd, Coelho JN, Riberto M. Applicability, validation and reproducibility of the Spinal Cord Independence Measure version III (SCIM III) in patients with non-traumatic spinal cord lesions. Disabil Rehabil. 2016;38(22):2229-34.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26800790

Anderson KD, Acuff ME, Arp BG, Backus D, Chun S, Fisher K, Fjerstad JE, Graves DE, Greenwald K, Groah SL, Harkema SJ, Horton III JA, Huang M-N, Jennings M, Kelley KS, Kessler SM, Kirshblum S, Koltenuk S, Linke M, Ljungberg I, Nagy J, Nicolini L, Roach MJ, Salles S, Scelza WM, Read MS, Reeves RK, Scott MD, Tansey KE, Theis JL, Tolfo CZ, Whitney M, Williams CD, Winter CM, Zanca JM. United States (US) multi-center study to assess the validity and reliability of the Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM III). Spinal Cord, 2011; 49: 880-885.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21445081

Bluvshtein V, Front L, Itzokovich M, Aidinoff E, Gelernter I, Hart J, Biering-Sorensen F, Weeks C, Laramee MT, Craven C, Hitzig SL, Glaser E, Zeilig G, Aito S, Scivoletto G, Mecci M, Chadwick RJ, El Masry WS, Osman A, Glass CA, Silva P, Soni BM, Gardner BP, Savic G, Bergstrom EM, Catz A. SCIM III is reliable and valid in a separate analysis for traumatic spinal cord lesions. Spinal Cord, 2011; 49:292-296.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20820178

Bonavita J, Torre M, China S, et al. Validation of the Italian version of the Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM III) Self-Report. Spinal Cord. 2016;54(7):553-60.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26481705

Catz A, Itzkovich M, Tesio L, Biering-Sorensen F, Weeks C, Laramee MT, Craven BC, Tonack M, Hitzig SL, Glaser E, Zeilig G, Aito S, Scivoletto G, Mecci M, Chadwick RJ, El Masry WS, Osman A, Glass CA, Silva P, Soni BM, Gardner BP, Savic G, Bergstrom EM, Bluvshtein V, Ronen J. A multicenter international study on the Spinal Cord Independence Measure, version III: Rasch psychometric validation. Spinal Cord 2007; 45: 275-291.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16909143

Fekete C, Eriks-hoogland I, Baumberger M, Catz A, Itzkovich M, Lüthi H, Post MW, von Elm E, Wyss A, Brinkhof MW. Development and validation of a self-report version of the Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM III). Spinal Cord. 2013;51(1):40-7.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22890418

Glass CA, Tesio L, Itzkovich M, Soni BM, Silva P, Mecci M, Chadwick R, et al. Spinal Cord Independence Measure, Version III: Applicability to the UK spinal cord injured population. J Rehabil Med 2009; 41: 723-728.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19774305

Hwang WJ, Hwang S, Chung Y. Test-retest reliability of the Quebec user evaluation of satisfaction with assistive technology 2.0-Korean version for individuals with spinal cord injury. J Phys Ther Sci. 2015;27(5):1291-3.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26157203

Invernizzi M, Carda S, Milani P, Mattana F, Fletzer D, Iolascon G, Gimigliano F, Cisari C. Development and validation of the Italian version of the Spinal Cord Independence Measure III. Disability and Rehabilitation, 2010; 32(14): 1194-1203.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20131944

Itzkovich M, Gelernter I, Biering-Sorensen F, Weeks C, Laramee MT, Craven BC, Tonach M, Hitzig SL, Glaser E, Zeilig G, Aito S, Scivoletto G, Mecci M, Chadwick RJ, El Masry WS, Osman A, Glass CA, Silva P, Soni BM, Gardner BP, Savic G, Bergstrom EM, Bluvshtein V, Ronen J, Catz A. The Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM) version III: Reliability and validity in a multi-center international study. Disability and Rehabilitation, 2007; 29(24): 1926-1933.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17852230

Joseph C, Phillips J, Wahman K, Nilsson wikmar L. Mapping two measures to the International Classification Of Functioning, Disability and Health and the brief ICF core set for spinal cord injury in the post-acute context. Disabil Rehabil. 2016;38(17):1730-8.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26750300

Kalsi-ryan S, Beaton D, Ahn H, et al. Responsiveness, Sensitivity, and Minimally Detectable Difference of the Graded and Redefined Assessment of Strength, Sensibility, and Prehension, Version 1.0. J Neurotrauma. 2016;33(3):307-14.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26560017

Marino RJ, Kern SB, Leiby B, Schmidt-read M, Mulcahey MJ. Reliability and validity of the capabilities of upper extremity test (CUE-T) in subjects with chronic spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med. 2015;38(4):498-504.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25297342

Michailidou C, Marston L, De souza LH. Translation into Greek and initial validity and reliability testing of a modified version of the SCIM III, in both English and Greek, for self-use. Disabil Rehabil. 2016;38(2):180-8.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25875048

Ovechkin AV, Vitaz TW, Terson de paleville DG, Mckay WB. Quality of residual neuromuscular control and functional deficits in patients with spinal cord injury. Front Neurol. 2013;4:174.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24223568

Prodinger B, Ballert CS, Brinkhof MW, Tennant A, Post MW. Metric properties of the Spinal Cord Independence Measure - Self Report in a community survey. J Rehabil Med. 2016;48(2):149-64.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26926919

Riberto M, Tavares DA, Rimoli JR, Castineira CP, Dias RV, Franzoi AC, Vall J, Lopes KA, Chueire RH, Battistella LR. Validation of the Brazilian version of the Spinal Cord Independence Measure III. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2014;72(6):439-44.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24964111

Rudhe C, Van hedel HJ. Upper extremity function in persons with tetraplegia: relationships between strength, capacity, and the spinal cord independence measure. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2009;23(5):413-21.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19261766

Saffari M, Pakpour AH, Yaghobidoot M, Al zaben F, Koenige HG. Cross-cultural adaptation of the spinal cord lesion-related coping strategies questionnaire for use in Iran. Injury. 2015;46(8):1539-44.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26003680

Scivoletto G, Tamburella F, Laurenza L, Molinari M. The spinal cord independence measure: how much change is clinically significant for spinal cord injury subjects. Disabil Rehabil. 2013;35(21):1808-13.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23343359

Tramonti F, Gerini A, Stampacchia G. Individualised and health-related quality of life of persons with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2014;52(3):231-5.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24343055

Unalan H, Misirlioglu TO, Erhan B, Akyuz M, Gunduz B, Irgi E, Arslan HE, Baltacı A, Aslan S, Palamar D, Kutlu A, Majlesi J, Akarırmak U, Karamehmetoglu SS. Validity and reliability study of the Turkish version of Spinal Cord Independence Measure-III. Spinal Cord. 2015;53(6):455-60.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25665539

Velstra IM, Bolliger M, Krebs J, Rietman JS, Curt A. Predictive Value of Upper Limb Muscles and Grasp Patterns on Functional Outcome in Cervical Spinal Cord Injury. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2016;30(4):295-306.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26156192

Velstra IM, Bolliger M, Tanadini LG, Baumberger M, Abel R, Rietman JS, Curt A. Prediction and stratification of upper limb function and self-care in acute cervical spinal cord injury with the graded redefined assessment of strength, sensibility, and prehension (GRASSP). Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2014;28(7):632-42.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24566986

Velstra IM, Curt A, Frotzler A, Abel R, Kalsi-Ryan S, Rietman JS, Bolliger M. Changes in Strength, Sensation, and Prehension in Acute Cervical Spinal Cord Injury: European Multicenter Responsiveness Study of the GRASSP. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2015;29(8):755-66.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25567122

Wannapakhe J, Saensook W, Keawjoho C, Amatachaya S. Reliability and discriminative ability of the spinal cord independence measure III (Thai version). Spinal Cord. 2016;54(3):213-20.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26169167

Zarco-periñan MJ, Barrera-chacón MJ, García-obrero I, Mendez-ferrer JB, Alarcon LE, Echevarria-ruiz de vargas C. Development of the Spanish version of the Spinal Cord Independence Measure version III: cross-cultural adaptation and reliability and validity study. Disabil Rehabil. 2014;36(19):1644-51.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24320025