Moorong Self-Efficacy Scale (MSES)

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Tool Description

  • Developed to measure self-efficacy in performing functional activities of daily living in individuals with SCI.
  • Consists of two factors: daily activities (e.g. I can maintain my personal hygiene with or without help), and social functioning (e.g. I can enjoy spending time with my friends).

ICF Domain:

Body Function – Subcategory: General Function

Number of Items:


Brief Instructions for Administration & Scoring


  • Self-report questionnaire
  • Participants rate their confidence in their ability to complete the 16 tasks on a seven-point Likert scale (1-very uncertain, 7-very certain).
  • Approximately 5 minutes is required to administer the test.

Equipment: None.


  • The total scale score (16-112) is obtained by summing the individual item responses.
  • For the factor or subscale scores, add:

- “Daily Activities / Instrumental Self-efficacy” subscale score: sum the 7 items (good health, work, accomplishing things, personal hygiene, persistence in learning things, fulfilling lifestyle, household participation)

- “Social Functioning / Interpersonal Self-efficacy” subscale score: sum the 8 items (maintaining contact, friends, family relationships, unexpected problems, fulfilling lifestyle, leisure, accomplishing things, household participation).


MCID: not established in SCI
SEM: not established in SCI
MDC: not established in SCI

  • Higher scores indicate higher perceived self-efficacy.
  • The scale was able to show a mean change of 8 points (84 – 92) over 6 months in a sample of individuals undergoing sub-acute rehabilitation post-SCI.
  • No normative data or cut points for the scale have been established for the SCI population as of yet.



Training Required:



Can be found here

Clinical Considerations

  • The scale is specific to individuals with SCI.
  • Individuals with a strong sense of self-efficacy will set challenging goals and have greater expectations resulting from their efforts. Such an efficacious outlook may positively influence rehabilitation efforts.The measurement of self-efficacy in rehabilitation may thus help to identify areas in which individuals with SCI have low self-efficacy of which may be modified via self-efficacy enhancing sources of information.

Measurement Property Summary

# of studies reporting psychometric properties: 7


  • Low to High internal consistency for the item-total correlation: 6 of 8 items: 0.46-0.802 of 8 items (item 2 and item 4): 0.17 and 0.25

[Middleton et al., 2003]

  • Moderate internal consistency for Factor 1 (social function self-efficacy; 5 items): α=.77
  • High internal consistency for Factor 2 (general self-efficacy; 4 items): α=.81
  • High internal consistency for Factor 3 (personal function self-efficacy; 7 items): α=.80


  • The MSES is significantly and Moderately correlated to Satisfaction with Life Scale scores (r=0.51), Personal Resources Questionnaire-2000 (0.56) and the Centre for Epidemiological Studies – Depression Scale – 10 item version (-0.54).

[Miller 2009]


No values were reported for the responsiveness of the MSES for the SCI population.

Floor/ceiling effect:

No values were reported for the presence of floor/ceiling effects in the MSES for the SCI population.


Dr. Vanessa Noonan, John Zhu, Jeremy Mak, Matthew Querée, Risa Fox

Date Last Updated:

June.28, 2019

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Download Worksheet:

Worksheet Document





Equipment Needed


Kilic SA, Dorstyn DS, Guiver NG. Examining factors that contribute to the process of resilience following spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2013;51(7):553-7.

Middleton JW, Tran V, Lo C, Craig A. Re-examining the validity and dimensionality of the Moorong self-efficacy scale: improving its clinical utility.

Middleton JW, Tate RL, Geraghty TJ. Self-efficacy and spinal cord injury: psychometric properties of a new scale. Rehabilitation Psychology 2003, 48(4): 281-288.

Miller SM. The measurement of self-efficacy in persons with spinal cord injury: psychometric validation of the mooring self-efficacy scale. Disability and Rehabilitation, 2009; 31(12):988-993.

Munce SE, Straus SE, Fehlings MG, Voth J, Nugaeva N, Jang E, Webster F, Jaglal SB. Impact of psychological characteristics in self-management in individuals with traumatic spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord, 2016; 54(1): 29-33.