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Modalities of Thromboprophylaxis

Currently, modalities of DVT and PE prophylaxis include the use of pharmacological, mechanical and surgical methods. Pharmacological methods include low-dose unfractionated heparin (LDUH) and low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), as well as oral anticoagulants such as aspirin and warfarin. Mechanical modalities include intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC)/sequential compression devices (SCD) and graduated compression stockings (GCS). Surgical methods refer to the use of inferior vena cava (IVC) filter implantation, specifically used in the prevention of PE for high risk individuals (Chen & Wang, 2013; Tai et al. 2013). Effective prophylaxis can prevent thromboembolic events during both hospitalization and in the months and years after discharge as well (Spinal Cord Injury Thromboprophylaxis Investigators, 2003b).