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Appendix 1: Specific Search Terms

Specific SCI rehabilitation topics were identified by a multi-disciplinary team of expert scientists, clinicians, consumers with SCI and policy-makers.  These specific topics were searched with additional keywords generated from expert scientists and clinicians in SCI rehabilitation familiar with the topic and more titles and abstracts are reviewed. MeSH headings were used with the keywords.  Key words were paired with spinal cord injury, tetraplegia, quadriplegia or paraplegia or spinal cord impaired or spinal cord lesion.  The reference lists of previous review articles, systematic reviews and clinical practice guidelines were hand searched.  It is known that hand searching may provide higher rates of return than electronic searching within a particular subject area (Hopewell et al. 2002).

Aging: aging, ageing, senior, older, geriatric, longitudinal, years post injury, age at injury, cross sectional, activities of daily living, aging, ageing, longitudinal, assistance, atherosclerosis, bladder, BMD, body mass, bone, bowel, breathing, cardiovascular, cancer, care, catheter, cause of death, digestive, cholesterol, colorectal, community, comparative, coronary, decline, depression, diabetes, disability, endocrine, exercise, fatigue, frailty, functional independence, gastrointestinal, genital, geriatrics, heart, hormone, housing, immune, incontinence, life expectancy, life satisfaction, long term, lower limb, menopause, metabolism, mental, mobility, morbidity, mortality, muscle, musculoskeletal, neurologic, obesity, pain, physical activity, pressure ulcer, psychological, pulmonary, quality of life, range of motion, renal, respiratory, sexual, sex life, shoulder, skin, social, strength, support, survival rate, upper limb, urinary, urologic

Autonomic Dysreflexia: autonomic dysreflexia OR autonomic hyperreflexia OR AD OR blood pressure

Bladder Management: bladder, bladder functioning, catheter, catheterization, neurogenic bladder, incontinence, oxybuytnin, valsalva, crede, suprapubic catheterization, intermittent catheterization, stimulation, bladder stimulation, electrical stimulation, sphincterotomy, ileoreterostomy, anticholergics, tolterodine, intervention, bladder management, UTI, Mitrofanoff, MESH – SCI & neurogenic (plus catheter) (plus treatment) (plus intervention)

Bone Health: alendronate, ossification, cartilage, osteoporosis, osteopenia, pamidronate, vibration, bisphosphonate, zoledronate, etidronate, mineral density, resorption, vitamin d, calcium, menopause,,ultrasound

Bowel Management: bowel management, cisapride, colonic, colon, colostomy, constipation, continence,  dietary fibre, fecal, feces, gastrointestinal tract, hemorrhoids, incontinence, irregular, laxative, neurogenic bowel, suppositories, stool

Cardiovascular Health: cardiovascular, cardiopulmonary, cardiometabolic, aerobic fitness, blood pressure, coronary heart disease, maximal aerobic power, VO2 max, oxygen consumption, thromboembolism, ventilatory threshold, head up tilt, oxidative metabolism, heart rate, smooth muscle relaxant, calcium channel blocker, BWSTT, MET, work capacity, exercise intervention, glucose homeostasis, hemodynamic, stroke volume, cardiac output, bradycardia, tachycardia

Depression: addiction, aging, alcohol abuse, antidepressants, anxiety, depression, drug abuse, drug therapy, gabaoentin, gender, gender differences, Iraq, intervention therapy, male and female, MDD, medication, military, military personnel, modafinal, pharmacological treatment, pharmacotherapy, psychosocial, PTSD, serotonin, service members, sexual health, sexual issues, sexuality, [specific researches: Krause, Noreau…], SSRI, substance abuse, veteran war, vocational issues, war effects, Zoloft.

Economic Costs: quality-adjusted life years, cost-benefit analysis, costs and cost analysis, economics, technology assessment, life expectancy, models, risk assessment, risk equation simulation model, spinal cord injuries.

Epidemiology: epidemiology, incidence, prevalence, etiology.

Heterotopic Ossification: heterotopic ossification, HO, excision surgery, etidronate, pharmacological, non-pharmacological, medication, radiation, treatment, intervention

Housing and Attendant Care: housing, public housing, independent living, independent living programs, housing for the elderly, homes for the aged, wheelchair accessible housing, disabled housing, social housing, visitability, non-profit housing, attendant care, personal care, personal support, home health aides, community heath nursing, community health services, health maintenance.

Lower Limb: 4-AP, biofeedback, body weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT), brace, bracing, Clonidine, Cyproheptadine, EMG, epidural lumbar stimulation, FES, gait, GM-1 ganglioside, knee-ankle-foot, locomotion, orthotics, parawalker, robotics, salbutamol, treadmill

Nutrition: nutrition, diabetes, insulin, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, energy, energy requirements, energy expenditure, calories, caloric intake, weight, weight gain, obesity, overweight, prevention, body composition, nutrient, cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular, supplements, supplementation, dietary, diet, nutrition intervention, folate, fatty acids, pressure ulcers/sores, vitamin supplement, mineral, mineral supplement, zinc, iron, protein, hydration, cranberry, neurogenic bowel, bowel, fibre (dietary, soluble, insoluble), peristalsis, osteoporosis, osteopenia, creatine, anemia, hemoglobin, vitamin D, calcium, magnesium, renal stone, kidney stone, urinary tract, hyperclacima, treatment, intervention, program, omega 3 fatty acids, fatty acids, bone density

Orthostatic Hypotension: orthostatic hypotension, OH, postural hypotension, orthostasis, head-up tilt, blood pressure, blood flow

Pain Management: pain, pain treatment, pharmacology, surgery, surgical treatment, pain management, secondary complications, massage, heat, exercise, hypnotic, hypnosis, cannabinoids, acupuncture, TENS, antidepressants, medications,, FES, anaesthetic, antispastic, clindine, spinal cordotomy, neurosurgical, DREZotomy, dorsal rhizotomy, symapathectomy, spinaothalamic tractotomy.

Physical Activity: physical activity, exercise, spinal cord injury, tetraplegia, paraplegia, cardiovascular, secondary complications, UTI, bladder, spasticity, pain, pressure ulcers/sores, gait, motivation, participation, support, exercise tools, exercise aids, exercise instruments, exercise equipment, exercise assistive technology, endurance, function recovery, daily activity, psychological, well being, depression, anxiety, training program, FES, QOL, health, fitness, strength, atrophy, wheeling, hydrotherapy, treadmill, ergometry.

Pressure Ulcers: pressure sores, ulcers

Primary Care: primary health care, patient care team, multidisciplinary care team, community health services, general practice, physicians, family physicians, general practitioner, family doctor, case management, patient outreach, delivery of health care, integrated, transmural care, home care services, nurse liason, continuity of patient care, transitional rehabilitation, clinical practice guidelines, practice guidelines, outpatient clinic, ambulatory care facilities, health management, health education, outreach, telemedicine.

Rehabilitation Practice: (“rehabilitation”[Subheading] OR “Rehabilitation”[MeSH]) AND “Spinal Cord Injuries”[MeSH] AND “Treatment Outcome”[MeSH]

Respiratory Management: abdominal binder, acapello, assisted cough, asthma – incidence, prevalence, atelectasis, autogenic drainage, barotraumas, BiPAP, breathing exercises, bronchial lavage, bronchitis, bronchoscopy, cardiopulmonary function, chest physiotherapy, COPD – incidence, prevalence, CPAP, diaphragmatic pacemaker, dysphagia, exsufflation, flutter, flutter device, flutter valve, forced expiratory technique, Garshick, glossopharyngeal breathing, incentive spirometry, insufflation, intermittent positive pressure breathing, intrapulmonary percussive ventilation, IPPB stretch, manual percussion, manual vibration, mechanical vibration, paripep , PEP  /  PEEP, percussion, phrenic pacemaker, pneumonia  – incidence, prevalence, positive pressure breathing, postural drainage, progressive ventilatory free breathing, pulmonary capacity, pulmonary complications – incidence, prevalence, pulmonary embolism, pulmonary health, pulmonary secretions, respiratory complications – incidence, prevalence, secretion removal, sleep apnea, smoking – incidence, prevalence, spirometry, synchronous intermittent mandatory ventilation, TheraPep, tidal volume, tracheostomy, ventilator weaning, ventilatory capacity, ventilatory failure – incidence, prevalence

Sexual Health: abortion, amenorrhea, insemination, birth control, body image, breast health, clitoris, Cesarean section, childbirth, contracept***, dyspareunia, ejaculation, ejaculatory disorder, electroejaculation, erection, erectile dysfunction, fertility, genital, gynecological, hypogonadism, ICSI, infertility, intracavernosal injection, intercourse, intimacy, IUD, IVF, labia, mammogram, masturbation, menopause, menstruation, obstetric, orgasm, pap smear, penile, penis, post-partum, priapism, pregnancy, pregnant, prostate, reproductive health, scrot**, semen quality, semen retrieval, seminal emissions, sexology, sexual activity, sexual arousal, sexual dysfunction, sexual function, sexual health, sexual identity, sexual pleasure, sexual position, sexual relationship, sexual response, sexual self-esteem, sexual self-views, sexual stimulation, sexuality, sildenafil, sperm quality, sperm retrieval, STD, STI, testic***, uterus, vacuum device, vagina, vaginal lubrication, Viagra, vibrator, vibrostimulation, vulva

Spasticity: botox, baclofen, spasticity, stimulation, movements, surgery

Syringomyelia: syringomyelia, syrinx, cystic myelopathy, shunt, untethering, spinal cord injury

Upper Limb: upper limb, FES and upper limb, exercise programs, upper limb injuries, splinting, specific researchers [Popovic…]

Venous Thromboembolism: deep venous thrombosis, vein thrombosis, DVT, VT, emboli, heparin, thromboembolism, vena cava filtration, venous ultrasound, venography, D-Dimer assay, pulmonary embolus, ventilation, spinal CT, anticoagulant.

Wheelchair and seating equipment: wheelchair, seating equipment, pressure mapping

Work and Employment: employment, supported employment, unemployment, employment status, employability, employment disabled, gainful employment, self employment, part time employment, temporary employment, employee assistance, employee assistance program, vocation, vocation assistance, vocational rehabilitation, vocational education, work resumption, workplace, return to work, work force, labor force, career assistance, career, job.