Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), a pharmaceutical agent that is normally used to treat neutropenia, has recently been investigated for its potential role in the treatment of acute SCI. The main function of G-CSF is apoptosis inhibition and stimulation of neuron differentiation from new bone marrow-derived cells (Schneider et al. 2005). It also suppresses the expression of inflammation-causing cytokines and protects the myelin sheath surrounding the axons of neurons (Takahashi et al. 2012). Recent studies in animal models have found G-CSF to enhance neurological recovery (Koda et al. 2007; Nishio et al. 2007), and its potential use in other neurological disorders, such as stroke, is under investigation (Schneider et al. 2005).