Erythropoietin (EPO) is a glycoprotein hormone that primarily controls red blood cell production. Interest in utilizing this pharmaceutical agent to treat acute SCI stems from one of its most commonly studied secondary functions, the prevention of neuronal apoptosis in the presence of ischemia (Siren et al. 2001). Even less well understood, EPO has been shown to elicit anti-inflammatory properties, minimize lipid peroxidation, scavenge free radicals, regenerate axons, and reduce calcium ions and influx of glutamate in in vitro and in vivo animal studies (Matis & Birbilis, 2009). Experimental SCI studies in animal models to date have shown that EPO elicits a neuroprotective benefit that contributes to neurological recovery (Hong et al. 2011; Okutan et al. 2007).