# Work and Employment Table 2 Non-Modifiable personal factors influencing employment after SCI

Personal factors

Impact on employment

Study (N)

Study reference

Male

Being male tends to favour return to work.

Exceptions:

Anderson and Vogel 2002 (195), Arango-Lasprilla et al. 2009* (11424), Arango-Lasprilla et al. 2010*(11090), Gunduz et al. 2010 (152), Krause and Reed 2011* (781), Ottomanelli et al. 2011 (238)

195

3756

259

615

1397

165

559

5925

82

234

181

2986

183

247

Anderson and Vogel 2002

Krause et al. 1999

Krause 2003

Krause and Terza 2006

Krause 2010c*

Lidal 2009

Marti et al. 2012

Meade et al. 2004

Pell et al. 1997

Tomassen et al. 2000

Rowell and Connelly 2010

Tsai et al. 2014

Ullah et al. 2015

Clark et al. 2017

Ethnicity

Being Caucasian tends to favour return to work

Exception:

Ottomanelli et al. 2011 (238)

195

11424

11090

3514

1177

1032

3756

615

1362

1134

1397

14454

781

5925

111

118

247

Anderson and Vogel 2002

Arango-Lasprilla et al. 2011

Hess et al. 2000

Krause et al. 1998

Krause and Terza 2006

Krause and Reed 2009*

Krause 2010c*

Krause et al. 2010d*

Meade et al. 2004

Phillips et al. 2012

Paul et al. 2013

Clark et al. 2017

Age

Employment tends to increase with age up to 30 and remain the same up to middle 40’s

Employment is lower in individuals aged 55-64 compared to those aged 45-54

195

167

20143

234

181

620

149

1323

1159

Anderson and Vogel 2002

Conroy and McKenna 1999

Pflaum et al. 2006

Tomassen et al. 2000

Rowell and Connelly 2010 (labor market participation may decrease with age)

Hirsh et al. 2009

Blauwet et al. 2013

Jetha et al. 2014

Marti et al. 2018

Age at time of injury

Younger age at injury tends to increase employment

167

1177

1032

3756

84

2986

Conroy and McKenna 1999

Hess et al. 2000

Krause et al. 1998

Ramakrishnan et al. 2011

Tsai et al. 2014

Duration of injury

The rate of employment increases with duration of injury (20-30 years)

167

20143

2986

353

Conroy and McKenna 1999

Pflaum et al. 2006

Tsai et al. 2014

Huang et al. 2017

Severity of injury

(cervical or tetraplegia)

Higher and more severe injury has a negative influence on employment

Exception:

Botticello et al. 2012 (1013), Gunduz et al. 2010 (152), Marti et al. 2012 (559), Phillips et al. 2012 (111), Ottomanelli et al. 2011 (238)

195

11424

11090

114

167

403

1177

1032

259

1362

1398

1134

781

165

219

91

2986

353

120

Anderson and Vogel 2002

Castle 1994

Conroy and McKenna 1999

Franceschini 2012

Hess et al. 2000

Krause et al. 1998

Krause 2003

Krause and Reed 2009*

Krause et al. 2010*

Lidal 2009

Murphy et al. 1997

Wang et al. 2002

Tsai et al. 2014

Huang et al. 2017

Kader et al. 2018

Education pre-injury

Higher education pre-injury is a key factor to employment

Exception:

Ottomanelli et al. 2011 (238)

11424

3514

1013

114

169

403

152

60

259

615

1362

1398

1134

1397

781

1329

219

559

219

234

Arango-Lasprilla et al. 2009*

Arango-Lasprilla et al. 2011

Botticello et al. 2012

Castle 1994

Conroy and McKenna 1999

Franceschini 2012

Gunduz et al. 2010

Hilton et al., 2017

Krause 2003

Krause and Terza 2006

Krause and Reed 2009*

Krause et al. 2010*

Krause 2010c*

Lin et al. 2009

Marti et al. 2012

Murphy et al. 1997

Tomassen et al. 2000

Pre-injury work

Positive influence on employment:

– Being employed at injury

– Returning to pre-injury job

– Lower physical demands of job pre-injury

11424

167

3756

259

1398

1134

192

72

20143

61

234

192

60

114

183

Arango-Lasprilla et al. 2009*

Conroy and McKenna 1999

Krause 2003

Krause et al. 2010*

Kurtaran et al. 2009

Murphy et al. 2009

Pflaum et al. 2006

Ramakrishnan et al. 2011b

Tomassen et al. 2000

Young et al. 2004

Young et al. 2011

Ferdiana et al. 2014

Ullah et al. 2015

Pre-injury chronic conditions

Negatively impacts post-injury employment

219

Lin et al. 2009

Felony convictions

Negatively impacts ability to find employment regardless of vocation rehabilitation program

157

LePage et al. 2014
* These studies are based on data from the National Spinal Cord Injury Statistical Center (NSCISC) in the United States. In general, two different types of analyses are undertaken (1) retrospective analysis of data in the database (2) a cross-sectional survey that is sent out to individuals identified from the database. Given that the same eligibility criteria are often used for studies relating to work and employment, it is likely that the data from the same individuals are being used for multiple studies.
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