Table 4 Motor Imagery

Author Year
Country
Research Design

Score

Total Sample Size

Methods Outcome

Di Rienzo et al., 2015

France

Pre-Post

N=8

Population: SCI participants (n=4): Mean age: 27.5 yr; Gender: males=2, females=2; Severity of Injury: AIS C6=4; Mean time since injury: 14.5 mo.

Intervention: SCI participants had motor imagery (MI) training imbedded within traditional physiotherapy for 5 additional wk (3x/wk) to investigate effect of MI training on Tenodesis prehension (TP), compared to healthy control group (HC) performing physical practice (PP)-based training.

Outcome Measures: Magnetoencephalography (MEG) measurements, Motor performance data, Kinesthetic and Visual Imagery Questionnaire (KVIQ), Movement Time (MT), Movement Variability (MV), Synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM).

 

1.     No statistically significant differences between groups on KVIQ scores or sub-scores (all p>0.05).

2.     MT were greater in SCI participants during the first pretest compared to the third pretests of the design (p<0.01) but not in HC (p>0.05).

3.     In SCI participants, post-test MV was superior to the median pretest value (p<0.05), but not in HC (p>0.05). 

4.     The total number of SAM sources elicited during MI was similar in HC and SCI groups across experimental sessions (p=0.89).

5.     Post-test values showing cortical recruitment (SAM sources) were significantly higher than those recorded during the pretests in the SCI group (p<0.01) but not in HC (p>0.05).

6.     MV was statistically predicted by the number of SAM rouces activated during MI in the SCI group (p<0.001) but not in HC (p=0.32).

Di Rienzo et al., 2014

France

Pre-Post

N=12

Population: SCI participants (n=6); Age: 18-55 yr; Level of injury: C6/C7=6.

Intervention: SCI participants received motor imagery (MI) training imbedded within traditional physiotherapy for 5 wk (3x/wk) to investigate effect of MI training on Tenodesis prehension (TP). This was compared to a healthy control group (HP) performing physical practice (PP)-based training.

Outcome Measures: Magnetoencephalography (MEG) measurements, Kinesthetic and Visual Imagery Questionnaire (KVIQ), Movement Time (MT), Movement Variability (MV).

1.     Mean KVIQ visual and kinesthetic subscores, as well as KVIQ total scores were comparable in both groups (p=0.52).

2.     Data from the mental chronometry task showed significant correlation between MI and PP durations at the whole-group level (p<0.001).

3.     No significant difference between MI and PP durations (p=0.66).

4.     A higher MV during the pre-test 3 as compared to the pre-test 2 in HP (p<0.05); in the SCI group, MV during the post-test 1 was significantly lower than during each of the pre-tests (all p<0.01).

5.     Lower MT and MV in HP compared to SCI subjects, for each experimental session (all p<0.01).

6.     There was no MV difference between post-test 1 and 2 in SCI participants (p>0.05).

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