Table 18 Effects of Normothermic Dressing in Pressure Injury Healing

Author Year
Research Design
Sample Size

Methods Outcome

Kloth et al. 2000


Prospective Controlled Trial


Population:Treatment group: Mean age=65.4 yr; Pressure injury stage: III=9, IV=7; Number of pressure injuries: SCI=7, Geriatrics=8. Control group: Mean age=59 yr; Pressure injury stage: III=3, IV=3; Number of pressure injuries: SCI=3, Geriatrics=3.

Intervention: A semiocclusive heated dressing applied (38°C) to treatment groups’ ulcers 4.5 hrs/day, Monday to Friday, for 4 wks. Heating element delivered two 60 minute periods of warmth with 1 hr of no heat between and at the end of treatment session. Standard wound care was received by both groups.

Outcome Measures: Peak daily skin temperature; change in wound surface area.

  1. Treatment group’s skin temperature increased 1.88°C inside and 1.86°C outside the pressure ulcer on average, between baseline and end of a session (p<0.05).
  2. Treatment group’s pressure ulcer surface area improved significantly, when compared to the control group (60.73% and 19.24% respectively, p<0.05).