Table 16 Non-Thermal Pulsed Electromagnetic Energy for Healing of Pressure Injuries

Author Year
Research Design
Sample Size

Methods Outcome

Salzberg et al. 1995





PopulationStage II group: Age=24-69 yr. No data for Stage III group.

Intervention: A non-thermal pulsed high frequency, high peak power, electromagnetic energy (PEE), was delivered through a treatment head placed in light contact with the wound site and tuned to resonance in the area of the wound. Treatment was non-invasive and delivered through wound dressings for 30 minutes, twice daily for 12 wk or until healed. The control group received 12 wk of sham treatment.

Outcome Measures: Pressure injury Status.

  1. Stage II group: Treatment (n=10), control (n=10). After 1 wk, the treatment group had a greater percentage of ulcer healed (84%) compared to the control group (40%), p=0.01 and the median size of ulcer was also smaller at one wk (2.7 versus 16.5 cm2, p=0.015).
  2. For complete healing, the treatment group healed in a median of 13 days versus 31.5 days for the controls (p<0.001).
  3. Given that there were more large ulcers (>60 cm2) in the sham group, data was reanalyzed for 15 subjects with ulcers <60 cm2 with similar results as found initially.
  4. Stage III group: Treatment n=5, control n=5. 3/5 healed with an average of 43 days of treatment. 0/5 healed in control group. Ulcer area decreased by average 70.6% versus 20.7% in control group.