Epidemiology Table 12: Work-related Incidents

Work-related Incidents

Author
Year
N

Geographic region

Inclusion/
exclusion criteria

Study population

Injury features

Causes: % (n of cases)

Wu et al.

2012

N=143

Tianjin, China

Patients admitted to Tianjin Medical University General hospital with diagnosis of tSCI

Mean age 54.6 years

Male:Female = 5:1

ASIA A = 5.6%

ASIA B = 16.8%

ASIA C = 18.9%

ASIA D = 58.7%

Work Related:

2.1%

Correa et al.

2011

N=173

Chile

1986-2005

Patients with traumatic SCI incurred in the workplace admitted to Hospital del Trabajador in Santiago, Santiago, Chile.

99.4% (172) male

Age at TSCI onset was 38.2±12.1 years.

78 (45.1%) – complete paraplegia

54 (31.2%) – incomplete paraplegia

18 (10.4%) -complete tetraplegia

23 (13.3%) – incomplete tetraplegia.

Work-related incidents:

Falls from a height-49.7% (86 cases)

Trauma blows to the vertebral spine – 35.3% (61 cases)

Traffic accident – 8.7% (15 cases)

Other causes – 6.4% (11 cases)

McCammon and Ethans

2011

N=553

Manitoba,

Canada

1981-1985, 1998-2002, 2003-2007

Inclusion criteria: survival to hospital admission with TSCI, or outpatient referral to an SCI rehabilitation specialist.

Exclusion criteria: congenital causes of paralysis such as spina bifida or cerebral palsy as well as acquired paralysis from multiple sclerosis or Guillan-Barre syndrome.

75.8% male

 

Mean Age:

 

1981-1985: 29.0 years

1998-2002: 35.3 years

2003-2007: 39.8 years

1981-1985:

Cervical: 46.2%

Thoracic:33.0%

Lumbar: 20.9%

Sacral:0.0%

 

1998-2002:

Cervical:45.0%

Thoracic:33.3%

Lumbar: 21.6%

Sacral:0.0%

 

2003-2007:

Cervical:51.3%

Thoracic:34.9%

Lumbar:12.5%

Sacral:1.3%

Work:

 

81-85: 3.6%

98-02: 2.6%

03-07: 4.0%

Ning et al.

2011

N=869

Tianjin,

China

All patients with TSCI aged 15 or older admitted to tertiary hospitals in Tianjin from Jan 1, 2004- Dec 31, 2008

738 male (84.9%)

 

Mean age (sd)

46.0 (14.2)

Cervical (71.5%)

Thoracic (13.3%)

Lumbar (15.1%)

Sacral (0.1%)

Work-related incident:

0.8%

(n=7)

Pickett et al.

2006

N=151

London, Ontario,

Canada

1997-2006

Admissions to hospital in London, Ontario with SCI

Men=74.2%

Mean age = 42.2 ± 20.9 (9-96) years

Mortality=12 (8%)

Cervical=75%

Thoracic= 10%

Lumbar=9%

Junctional=6%

Complete=35% Incomplete=65%

Work-related:

6.6% (n=10)

Krassioukov et al.

2003

N=58

Toronto, Canada

1998-2000

Admissions to hospital in Toronto with traumatic SCI.

Exclusion Criteria:

Patients admitted with ASIA E.

Males=87%

Ages 17-59 years:

Mean age=38.7 (17-56) years

ASIA A and B=30%

ASIA C and D=70%

Work-related

10.3%

(n=6)

Singh et al. 2003

N=483

Haryana, India

2000-2001

Accident and emergency services and department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation of Pt. B.D. Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak.

Males = 74.7%)

Mean age at injury=35.4 years

164 tetraplegia

283 paraplegia

Mine

cave-in:

6.42%

(n=31)

Catz et al.

2002

N=250

Israel

1959-1992

Traumatic SCI, admitted to the Loewenstein Rehabilitation Center, the major referral center for rehabilitation medicine in Israel.

Males=75.6%

Mean age = 34.5 years (range 6-83 years).

High cervical 7.6%

low cervical 28.8%

thoracic 32.4%

lumbar 31.2%

Work-related:

26.8% (n=34)

O’Connor 2001

N=369

Australia

1986-1997

Australian Spinal Cord Injury Register

Males= 95%

75% aged 25-54 years

28% labourers (construction, mining)

Data for 358 subjects:

35% incomplete paraplegia

34% complete paraplegia

21% incomplete tetraplegia

10% complete tetraplegia

34.4% (n=123) cervical

45.5% (n=163) thoracic

23.2% (n=83) lumbar

Work-related:

13% (n=369)

van Asbeck et al.

2000

N=126

(specific data for 113)

Netherlands

1994

Patients with SCI in National Registration system with medical records.

Exclusion Criteria:

Spinal contusions with no or temporary neurological symptoms.

Males=77%

<20 years=15 (13%)

21-30 years=28 (25%)

31-60 years=36 (32%)

>61=34 (30%)

Mortality=18 (16%)

Complete tetraplegia=26 (23%)

Incomplete tetraplegia=39 (34%)

Complete paraplegia=29 (26%)

Incomplete paraplegia=19 (17%)

Work-related:

4.4%

(n=5)

Igun et al.

1999

N=68

Plateau State,

Nigeria

1984-1997

Radiologically confirmed diagnosis of spinal cord injury.

Males = 91.2% Mean age = 30 years.

Cervico-thoracic n=32

Cervico-thoracic n=36

Deaths n=18

Mining cave-in

17.96% (n=12)

Caldana and Lucca

1998

N=127

Veneto,

Italy

1994-1995

New cases of traumatic spinal cord injury and non-traumatic spinal cord disease treated in regional hospitals (small hospitals excluded)

Male = 83.5%; Average age (male) of 39.8 years

Average age (female) of 36 years

Cervical=62 (21 were complete)

Thoracic=29(25)

Thoracolumbar (T12-L1)=18(11)

Caudal=14(3)

Unidentified=1

Work-related:

22%

(n=28)

Exner and Meinecke

1997

N= 22,212

Germany

1976-1996

All traumatic and non-traumatic SCI

72% male.

62% paraplegic

38% tetraplegic

Work-related:

14%

(n=3119)

Stavrev et al.

1994

N=980

Plovdiv and Plovdiv region,

Bulgaria

1983-1992

Treatment for SCI at 2 clinics in Plovdiv region

Males=72%

21-40 years =387 (40%)

41-60 years =298 (30%)

61-70 years =137 (14%)

>70 years

=76 (8%)

Mortality=72 (7%)

Cervical=206 (21%)

Thoracic (>T7) =275 (28%)

Lumbar=399, (41%)

Other=100 (10%)

Neurological deficit=409 (42%)

No neurological deficit=572 (58%)

Work-related:

7.2% (n=71)

Dixon et al.

1993

N=164

New Zealand

1988

SCI cases in Health Services Statistics files.

Males=73.2%

Males aged 15-29 years=46%

C1-C4=49 (30%)

C5-C7=30 (18%)

T1-T6=19 (12%)

T7-T12-19 (12%)

Work-related:

3% (n=5)

Tator et al.

1993

N=201

Toronto,

Canada

1974-1981

First 220 admissions to Acute Spinal Cord Injury Unit in Toronto.

Exclusion Criteria: Admissions >30 days after injury; injuries without cord involvement; nerve root involvement only; penetrating injuries; injuries below L2; Patients who died on scene or upon arrival.

Males=79.6%

Mean age=34.5 years

Median age=27.0 years

Cervical=63.2%, Thoracic=16.9%, Thoraco-lumbar=19.9%

Complete=46.2%, Incomplete=53.8%

Work-related:

13.9% (n=28)

Ring et al.

1986

N=202

New South Wales, Australia

1977-1978

Admissions to New South Wales hospitals with spinal injury; death certificates that involved spinal injury. 99% of cases had neurological involvement.

Males=81%

15-24 years

= 84 (42%)

25-44 years

=58 (29%)

45-64 years

=30 (15%)

≥65 years=15 (7%)

Mortality=69 (39%)

Glasgow Outcome Scale:

Severe disability=98(49%)

Moderate disability=19(9%)

Good recovery=13(6%)

Not recorded=3(1%)

Work-related:

9.4% (n=19)

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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